Book: The Christian Passover


Abel, murdered by Cain, 196-197

Abib, first month in the Hebrew calendar 56; later called Nisan, 56; used in Scripture in connection with Feast of Unleavened Bread, 120, 164-165; month of linked to Passover only in Deuteronomy 16, 166; see also Barley harvest; Deuteronomy 16

Abram, Patriarch’s name before God changed it to Abraham, 266

Abraham, and covenant of God, 1; promises given to are the foundation of both Old and New Covenant Passovers, 266, 303; the spiritual seed of, 266-267; righteousness imputed to through faith, 268; to become a multitude of nations, 282; not tempted by God, 283; final testing of by God, 283-286; the spiritual seed of, 288ff; God’s plan for completely fulfilling promises to, 291 -293; a type of God the Father, 295; both Old and New Covenants established on promises given to, 299; sacrifice of in Genesis 15 foreshadowed the death of Jesus, 309; see also Covenant, Abramic; Faith; Genesis 15; Genesis 17

Abomination of desolations, see Antiochus Epiphanes

Abortion rites of Baal, 134

Ad, a Hebrew preposition meaning “until,” 35, 56; expresses “the limit of time itself,” 56; translated “unto” or “until,” 56; see also Gad

Ad erev, a Hebrew prepositional phrase meaning “until sunset,” 35 see also Ba erev; Mn erev

Adam and Eve, exiled for disobedience, 195-196; creation of, 332; their human nature, their language, their free moral agency, neutrality of their natures, not subject to death until sinned, 331ff; lost neutrality of nature when sinned, 331-333; see also Human nature; Law of sin and death; Spirit of man

Ahasuerus, another name for Artaxerxes, 178

Ahaz, wicked king of Judah 739-724 BC; worshipper of Baal, Molech, 139- 140; stripped the temple and shut it up, 140-141; high places of purged by Josiah, 152

Afternoon, traditional Jewish interpretation of ben ha arbayim, 40, 48-49; see also Coharayim; Ntothhayom

Agape meal, Bacchiocchi’s erroneous promotion of, 262

Akal, a Hebrew verb meaning “to eat, to consume, to dine” 22; found in Ex. 12:45, Ezra 6:19-22; see also Asah; Shacht

Akiba, Rabbi, and details of temple centered Passover, 216

Akitu, Festivals of Anu, began on Nisan 15 and Tishrit 15, 133

Al-Magribi, Samuel, Karaite scholar writing 1484 AD, 2, 203

Altar of whole stones, 275

Amon, king of Judah 639- 638 BC; as wicked as his father Manasseh, 150

An, Greek particle that denotes condition, used in I Cor. 11:25-26, 257-258; see also As often As; Ean; Osakis; Osakis an esthieete Osakis an pineete;

Anamnesis, see Remembrance

Anat, wife of Baal, 131; comparable to lshtar, 131; see also Semiramis

Anglo-Saxon, descendants of the ten lost tribes, 136

Animal sacrifices, all fulfilled through the sacrifice of Christ, 250, 372ff; see also Atonement;

Blood of Christ; Ceremonial law; Josiah; Sacrifices

Anu, festivals of Baal, began Nisan 15 and month of Tishrit 133; see also Akitu

Antichrist, Scriptural test for, I John 4:1-3, 6, 340f

Antiochus Epiphanes, offered swine on the altar of God 169-168 BC, 209

Apostles, of Jesus Christ, to sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel, 316; see also Part

Aramaic, the language of the people in the time of Ezra, 179

Arbayim, a plural Hebrew noun meaning “evenings” or “setting-times,” 25-26; formed from the root “erev,” 24; used only in the prepositional phrase “ben ha arbayim” 25

Arhirat, Ugaritic name for Semiramis, 131; see also Baal; Bn’trt

Arsames, Persian satrap of Jerusalem, 190

Artemis, goddess worshiped, 130

Artaxerxes, king of Persian Empire during time of Ezra, 178; known also as Ahasuerus, 178; see also Arsames; Darius Hystaspes; Data; Ezra 7

As often as, meaning of in regard to observing the NT Passover, 255-257; meaning of restricted by phrase “teachings received from the Lord” (I Cor. 11:23), 258; meaning of restricted by phrase “the night in which Christ was betrayed” (I Cor. 11:23), 258; meaning of restricted by phrase our “proclaiming the Lord’s death:’ (I Cor. 11:23), 258; meaning of restricted by phase “until He may come” (I Cor. 11:23), 258; meaning of restricted by phrase “in remembrance of me” (I Cor. 11:24, 25), 259; meaning of restricted by the qualifying Greek particles an or ean, 257-258; see also An; Bacchiocchi; Ean; Osakis; Osakis an esthieete; Osakis an pineete; Remembrance

Asa, king of Judah 950-910 BC, one of the few righteous kings of Judah, 139; see also Jehoshaphat

Asah, a Hebrew verb translated “keep” or “kept” and signifying observing the Passover, 22; equated with akal, to “eat” Passover, 22; refers to both killing and eating the Passover, 177; see also Shacht; Slaughter; Exodus 12:47-48; Ezra 6:19-22

Asherah, female counterpart in Baal worship, 129; Hebrew name for Semiramis, 130; worship of described, 131-132; idols to built by Manasseh, 149- 150; idols to burned by Josiah, 150-151; covers woven for by women of Judah, 152; purged from temple by Hilkiah, 151- 152; see also Amon; Anat; Anu; Arbirat; Artemis; Asherim; Ashtoreth; Astarte; Athirat; Diana; Easter; Isis; Ishtar; Jezebel; Manasseh; Semiramis

Asherim, the plural of Asherah, 129; represented Semiramis, queen of heaven, 136; cut down by Hezekiah, 148; cut down by Josiah, 151

Ashtoreth, Sidonian name for Semiramis, goddess of Sidonians, 126; worshipped by Solomon, 126 -127, 152, 176; Israel turns to in worship, 165; 194; see also Asherah; Baal

Assemble, Israel did not assemble at Rameses for the Passover, 61-62; see also Houses; Tent

Assembly, meaning of in Ex. 12:6 reinterpreted by rabbis to justify temple sacrifice of lambs, 214; see also Mishnab; Rabbis

Astarte, Canaanite name for Semiramis, 130; nude depictions of, 131; nude orgiastic worship of, 131-132

At even, a prepositional phrase meaning “at sunset”; meaning of phrase confused with meaning of ben ha arbayim, 23; ends any given day at sunset and begins the next, 36-37, 48f; see also Ba erev; Dt. 16:4; Ex. 12:18; Gn. 19:1; Gn. 29:23; Sunset

Athirat, goddess of the Amorites and Canaanites, Hebrew name for Semiramis, 130

Atonement, day of, commands for important to our understanding of ba erev, 33; key to understanding Scriptural definition of a day, 57; sacrifices required for, 109; and Christ’s one perfect sacrifice, 310; fulfillment of through sacrifice of Christ, 372ff; ceremony as viewed from Miphkad Altar, 374-375; see also Blood of Christ

Authority, for Ezra’s editing of OT based on procedure adopted by Moses, Samuel, 185; see also Deuteronomy 16; Ezra


Ba, a Hebrew preposition, 35, 41; translated “at,” “in” or “on,” 41; its use in phrase “on the fifteenth day” 42; see also Ba Erev

Ba erev, a Hebrew prepositional phrase meaning “at the setting of the sun,” 24, 33ff; translated “at even,” and “evening,” 24, 35; key to understanding ben ha arbayim, 33, 45- 47; defined in Leviticus 23:32, 33f; ba erev of the seventh day of the week ends the Sabbath, it does not begin it, 35-36; ba erev of the fourteenth day of the month ends the day, it does not begin it, 38; Jews understand that ba erev ends the day, 36- 37; diagram of, 39; duration of, 38-39, 49; as used in Exodus 12, 13, 23, 34, Numbers 9 and Deuteronomy 16, 166; in relation to “Passover offerings” of Deuteronomy 16, 166; occurs immediately before ben ha arbayim, 166; and New Testament Passover at sunset of the 13th, 227; see also Ad erev; Atonement; Ben ha arbayim; Deuteronomy 16; Edersheim; Erev; Evening; Exodus 12; Mn erew; Passoverofferings; Sabbath; Wave sheaf

Baal, worship of led to captivity of Israel and Judah, 124ff; Baalim, plural for Baal, 124; and golden calf of Jeroboam, 127- 128; Babylonian Shamash, 130; Assyrian Saturn, 130; Egyptian Ra and Osiris, 130; Canaanite name, 130; signifies “The Lord” 130; Greek Belus, 130; Chaldean Bel, 130; Phoenician ‘Il or El, Ugaritic for, 131; the sky god, 131; descriptions of orgiastic worship, 131-132; children passing through fire as burnt offering, 132; Festival of Anu, 133; orgiastic seven-day festival of beginning Nisan 15, 133-134; the “bull god” 133; and incest, 133; abortion rites of, 134; phallic worship of, 134, 136; divination, 136; special celebration of on Nisan 15, 133; worshipped by Manasseh, 149; worshipped by homosexuals, 152; Israel turns to in worship, 194; see also Christianized; Nimbus; Nimrod; Phallus; Pillars; Selfmutilation; Semiramis

Baalim, worship of by Israel, 124-125; Israel’s habitual worship of, 153; see also Ashtareth; Baal

Babylonian captivity, of 585 BC, 1; of 603 to 585, 120; and practice of calling both Passover and Unleavened Bread “the Passover,” 172; and end of 70 years of servitude, 176; prophecy of 70 years of, 200, 202; Daniel’s meditation concerning, 201

Babylonian religious system, established in Israel by Jeroboam, 128; originated at tower of Babel, 130; see also Ahaz; Amon; Ashtoreth; Baalism; Catholicism; Easter; Isis; Jeroboam; Manasseh; Nimrod; Osiris; Semiramis; Solomon

Bacchiocchi, Samuele, wrongly teaches that Jesus’ last Passover was an “early Passover meal or supper” 234-237; confused and befuddled by John’s chronology of crucifixion, 235-236; fails to consider domestic Passover at Jesus’ time, 236; recognizes only Nisan 15 as “official Passover” of the Jews, 236; indulges in errant theological speculation, 235-236; erroneously concludes that Jesus’ crucifixion was timed to coincide with temple sacrifice, 236- 237; his theology based on Jewish Tradition and early Catholic fathers, not Scripture, 236-237, 262; wrongly supports view that Passover symbols may be taken during the year, 261; his total misinterpretation of I Corinthians 11, 261- 262; his erroneous promotion of a Lord’s Supper or Agape Meal observance, 261-262; his justification of the Catholic Eucharist, 262; see also As often as; Communion; Easter Sunday; Eucharist; The Lord’s Supper

Baptism, mandatory for salvation, cojoined into the crucifixion and death of Jesus Christ, 9; must be by full immersion in water, 301, 319-320; a symbolic burial, 297, 314, 317; required to have a “part” with Christ, 319; and entrance into the New Covenant, 313f; Greek verb for, 320; means burial into the death of Jesus Christ, 245, 320; renewed yearly through practice of footwashing ceremony at NT Passover, 321; see also Baptizoo; Conversion; Holy Spirit; Laying on of hands; Louoo; Resurrection; Part; Spirit of man; Washed

Baptizoo, Greek verb designating baptism by immersion, 320

Baqar, Hebrew noun translated “herd” in Deut. 16:2, refers to offerings for Unleavened Bread, 167- 168; see also Bashal; Bovine; Bullocks; Deuteronomy 16:2; Herd; Rabbis; Tsacah

Barley harvest, began during month of Abib, month of the “green ears” 56

Bashal, Hebrew verb meaning to “boil” 168-169; incorrectly translated as “roast,” 169, 173; translated “boil” “sod” or “sodden” in Ex. 12:9, Lev. 6:21; 8:31, Num. 6:19, 169; translated “seethe” in Ex. 16:23; 29:3 1; 34:26, Deut. 14:21, 169; see also Baqar; Boil; Bullocks; Deuteronomy 16:7; Herd; Rabbis; Tsacah

Bayith, Hebrew noun meaning “a dwelling, an abode, a house” translated “house” or “houses” 59, 62; never refers to tent, 61; see also Boqer; Domestic Passover; Moshab; Ohel; Soo-kaw; Tent

Bebaia, a Greek word meaning, “to establish, to confirm, or to make fixed” 306; grossly mistranslated “is of force” in Hebrews 9:16, 306; see also Epi nikrois

Begettal, of Holy Spirit by God in love, 12, 330; see also Conversion; Gennoomenon; Laying on of hands; Spirit of man

Bel, Chaldean name of Baal, 130; see also Nimrod

Believing, necessity of for salvation, 324; see also Faith

Belus, Greek name of Baal and Bel, 130; see also Nimrod

Ben, or Beyn, a Hebrew preposition translated “between” 25; used in the prepositional phrase ben ha arbayim,25

Ben ha arbayim, why phrase not shown in Strong’s Concordance, 24; literally translated “between the two evenings” 25-26; or “between the settingtimes” 25; translated “at dusk” 25, 25, 46; “at even” 23ff “evening,” 23ff; confusion over meaning, 27; admitted by Kuhn and Grabbe to have originally been a period of time between sundown and darkness, 31; traditional Jewish interpretation of, 40, 175; true definition of preserved in Exodus 16, 40f, 48; miracle of the quail places immediately after sunset, 46-47; true definition supported by scholarship, 49-51; length of, 50-51; diagram of, 54; defined by Scripture as beginning of new day, 116; Pharisees taught it lasted three hours before sunset, 118f; Sadducees taught between sunset and nightfall, 118f; command in Ex. 12:6 not nullified by temple-centered Passovers of Hezekiah and Josiah, 153-154; not mentioned in temple centered Passovers, 153; as used in Exodus 12, 13, 23, 34, Numbers 9 and Deuteronomy 16, 160-163; occurs immediately after ba erev, not in the previous afternoon, 175; and timing of Passover, 384-385; see also Ad; At even; Ba erev; Beyn ha arbayim; Erev; Evening; Fox; Full moon; Grabbe; Kaplan; Karaites; Kuhn; Rabbis; Rashi; Samaritans; Strong’s; Templecentered Passover; Twilight

Bestiality, in worship of Canaanites, 131

Bethel, pagan altar of, 127- 128; see also Jeroboam

Between the setting-times, Everett Fox’s literal translation of ben ha arbayim,” 25, 46, 51f, 56f

Between the two evenings, English equivalent of Hebrew ben ha arbayim, 23ff; see also Ba erev; Ben ha arbayim; Between the setting-times

Beyn ha arbayim, phonetic spelling of ben ha arbayim, 23

Bible study, fourteen rules for, 14-15; Scripture interpreting Scripture, 36; and the Bereans, 40; application of, 55-56; application of rule #3, 77; rules applied to the study of Deuteronomy 16, 159ff; rules of applied to the study of Matthew 26:17 and Mark 14:2, 227; see also Doctrine; Scholarship

Blood of Christ, and Passover lamb, 17; the blood of the New Covenant, 347; the multifaceted meaning of, 347ff; ratified New Covenant, 348; redeems sinners, 348- 349; justifies, 350-351; purifies from dead works, 251, 303; gives direct access to the Father, 351- 352; purchased and sanctified His Church, 352; delivers from Satan, 352- 353; Christians are perfected by, 353-354; see also Ceremonial law; Covenant; Jesus Christ; Sacrifices; Salvation; Wine

Blood of animals, basis of Old Covenant, 274-275, 299

Blood of Passover lamb, 16; originally sprinkled on door-posts and lintels of houses, 57-58; first account of dashing of on temple altar, 143; sprinkling of on the altar not commanded in Book of the Law, 154-155; shedding of for remission of sins, 306; see also Hezekiah; Josiah

Book of the Covenant, 274, 306

Bn’trt, Ugaritic for “son of Arbirat,” 131; see also Baal; Semiramis

Boh ha sheh’mesh, Hebrew phrase translated “going down of the sun”; found in Deuteronomy 16:6, 418

Boil, Hebrew “bashal,” mistranslated “roast” in II Chronicles 35:13, 155; in Deuteronomy 16:7, 169; boiling of Passover lambs still forbidden by Jews at time of Christ, 216; see also Baqar; Bashal; Bullocks; Herd; Peaceoffering; Rabbis; Tsacah

Bones, of Passover lamb, to be completely burned to ashes by morning of Nisan 14, 68; breaking of at Passover forbidden, 19, 66, 102, 107; see also Book of the Covenant; Deuteronomy 16

Book of life, 318

Boqer, a Hebrew noun meaning sunrise, dawn, translated morning, 42- 43, 58; translated “daybreak” 58; time when Israel left their houses, 71-72; not the same as midnight, 73; Kuhn and Grabbe falsely link with midnight, 75; begins when the first light of dawn appears, 77; see also Bones; Daybreak; Exodus 7:15-20; Exodus 8:16; Fox; Grabbe; Kuhn; Ruth

Born again, occurs only at resurrection of Christians into Spirit Family of God, 330; see also Begettal; Conversion; Family of God; Resurrection

Bovine, type of sacrificial animal, included in “Passover offering” of Deuteronomy 16:2, 167; never used for the Passover sacrifice, 167; see also Baqar; Bashal; Boil; Bullocks; Herd;

Rabbis; Tsacah

Brass doors, of temple, opened at Christ’s crucifixion, 380ff; see also Darkness; Earthquake; Resurrection; Veil

Bullocks, oxen or small cattle, never used for the Passover sacrifice, 154; see also Baqar; Bashal; Boil; Bovine; Herd; Tsacah

Burnt-offering, 103, dedication of altar of, 105-106; no mention of for Passover at tabernacle, 110; of children to Baal, 132; Passover- offering of Josiah, 154; see also Bullocks; Peace-offering; Qarob


Cain, exiled for disobeying God, 196- 197; his murder of Abel, 196-197; see also Adam and Eve

Calling, of sinners only through God the Father and Jesus Christ, 300f; see also Conversion; Plan of God; Repentance

Cannibalism, Cahna-Bal, Canaanite term meaning “Priests of Baal,” 132; origin of word “cannibal,” 132, see also Catholicism; Transubstantiation

Canonization, of Old Testament under Ezra and Nehemiah, 182ff; see also Deuteronomy 16; Editing; Ezra; The Great Assembly

Catholicism, origin in paganism, 130; its counterfeit footwashing service, 242; doctrine of transubstantiation not taught in NT, 246; see also Baal; Bacchiocchi; Cannibalism; Confession of sin; Easter; Eucharist; Judaism; Mass; Protestantism

Centralization, of Passover to temple; see Hezekiah; Josiah

Ceremonial law, see Sacrificial system, see Babylonian religious system

Chamber of hewn stones, court of the Sanhedrin, destroyed at the death of Jesus, 383

Chart, of ba erev, 39; of ben ha arbayim, 54; of Egyptian day adopted by Judaism for Nisan 15 Passover, 208; of Genesis 15 comparing the covenant sacrifices of Genesis 15 with the death of Jesus Christ, 307; of Genesis 22 comparing the covenant sacrifices of Genesis 22 with the death of Jesus Christ, 308

Chemosh, god of Moab, 126, worshipped by Solomon, 126-127; high places of finally destroyed by Josiah, 152; see also Ashtoreth; Baal; Molech; Nimrod; Semiramis

Children, offered as burnt offerings to the gods of the worshipers of Baal, 132; see also Cannibalism

Christian holidays, pagan origin of, 135

Christianity, mainstream, 3; false worship leads to death, 10; modern, derived from paganism, 135: see also Baal; Catholicism

Christianized, Baal and Ashtereth counterfeits, 246; see also Catholicism; Christianity; Communion; Eucharist; Lord’s Supper; Mass

Christmas, 135, 247, see also Christianity; Easter; Lord’s Supper; Mass

Chronicles, books of written by Ezra, 142-143

Chronicles II, compilation of by Ezra, 185-186; in relationship to later terminology, 174f

Chronicles II, 30:6, 13, first use of term “Passover” to include Feast of Unleavened Bread, 143; first indication of Passover lambs being slain on day portion of Nisan 14, 143ff

Chronology, Babylonian captivity of 585 BC, 1; destruction of temple 70 AD, 1; meaning of Passover and Unleavened Bread 93 to 94 AD, 17; domestic Passover at time of Christ, 17; meaning of Passover and Unleavened Bread 71 BC to 39 BC, 18, temple-centered Passover instituted some 800 years after original, 29, 101f; of the Passover, 55; of Passover and Exodus artificially collapsed into twelve hours by proponents of Nisan 15 Passover, 70, 87f; Passover and Exodus did not take place on same night, 77f; of the Exodus, 94-98; of setting up and dedicating tabernacle, 104-106; of combination of Passover and Unleavened Bread, 120; of splitting of Israel into two separate kingdoms, 135f; of writing of I & II Chronicles by Ezra, 142; of temple-centered Passover, 147, 157f, 186ff; dual observance of Domestic and Temple centered Passover continued until 70 AD, 158; of desecration of temple by Antiochus Epiphanes, 209; of introduction of the Seder meal, 211; Passover of 48 and 52 AD, 217; of Jesus’ last Passover, 237-241; of events in Genesis 15, 303- 310; of events in Genesis 22, 308; of the apostle John’s writing, 328; see also Deuteronomy 16:1- 8; Ezra; Hezekiah; Josiah; Nisan 14; Nisan 15; Outline; Quail; Selfsame day

Church of God, called the body of Christ, 352; composed of all who repent, are baptized and receive the Holy Spirit through the laying on of hands, 352; see also Baptism; Body of Christ; Holy Spirit; Laying on of hands; New Israel; Red heifer; Repentance

Circumcision, of Abraham fourteen years after promises given, 268; of the heart, 268-269, 280, 313- 314; did not alter the promises in any manner, 278; became an ordinance of the Passover, 281

Cohorayim, Hebrew for “midday” 49; see also Ntothhayom

Comforter, the Holy Spirit of God, 10, 12

Commandments, keeping is loving God, necessary for salvation, 10f; the greatest, 11; unlawfully re-placed by teachings and traditions of men, 31-32; rejected by Jews, 31, 40; given only twenty-two days after giving manna, 43; in force from Creation to Moses’ day, 279; kept by Jesus Christ, 221-222; kept by those who love Christ, 312; see also Christianity; Holy days; Love; Obedience

Communion, replaced true Passover observance, 3; adopted in place of NT Passover, 237, 247, 392; a practice of Baal worship, 237; see also Christianity; Easter; Eucharist; Mass

Competition, among disciples condemned by Jesus, 315-316

Confession of sin, made only to Christ, 350; see also Blood of Christ; Catholicism; Repentance

Conscience, purification of 350; see Blood of Christ

Conspiracy, attempt by Rabbi Kaplan to insert Jewish tradition into Scriptures 48; attempt by Rabbi Kaplan to redefine ben ha arbayim, 48; insertion of Jewish tradition into New JPS Translation, 110; insertion of the word sacrifice after the word “Passover” in Num. 28:16, 110; mistranslation of bashal as “roast” in Deut. 16:7, 169; of Samaritans at time of Ezra, 174; of Sanballat with the Jewish colonists of Elephantine, 189-190; reinterpretation by rabbis of meaning of assembly, congregation and Israel in Exodus 12, 214; perversion of early Christian doctrine combated by John, 232; see also Assembly;. Catholicism; Judaism; Kaplan; Mishnah; Mistranslations; Nisan 15; Passover - o f f e r i n g s; Pea c e - offerings; Rabbis; Scholarship; Sharfman

Controversy, Nisan 14/15 Passover defined, 1ff

Conversion, required for Salvation, 10f; process of, 10, 335; see also Baptism; Begettal; Calling; Holy Spirit; Laying on of hands; Repentance; Salvation

Corinthians I, 5:7, 1, 6, Corinthians I, 11, 257- 259, 262; see also An; As often as

Covenant, Abramic, 1, 4; all covenants based on loving God, 11; and the Exodus, 96; Exodus a direct fulfillment of God’s promise, 192; promise of Israel’s deliverance at the set time, 198; promises of given four hundred years before Old Covenant, 266; account of God entering into with Abraham, 271- 272; cutting of an exact parallel in the chronology of the Passover and Exodus of Israel, 272f; established on Nisan 15, 274; and its relationship to commandment keeping, 278-279; established with Isaac, 281-287; unilaterally cut by God Himself, 303-304; see also Nisan 14; Maledictory oath; Selfsame day; Unilateral covenant

Covenant, New, new symbols of instituted on night of Nisan 14 by Jesus, 226; annually renewed at NT Passover, 246, 248, 376; magnifies meaning of God’s law, 249-250; and necessity of keeping God’s commandments, 250-251; foundation of laid by righteousness of Abraham, 269; promise of eternal life make New superior to Old, 300; founded on Jesus Christ, 301f; obedience to God required under, 301; and brotherhood of Christ, 301, Christ sole Mediator of, 301-303; offers direct contact with God the Father through Jesus Christ as High Priest, 312, 351; in relation to NT Passover, 312; entered at baptism, 320; sealed in Christ’s blood, 373; likened to a marriage, 378; see also Blood of Christ; Church of God; Eternal life; Holy days; Nature of God; New Israel; Sabbath; Spiritual blessings

Covenant, Noachian, 198

Covenant, Old, promise of physical and material blessings only, 6, 192; broken by Israel in Baal worship, 124ff; broken by Solomon, 126-127; renewed by Hezekiah, 141- 142; renewed by Josiah, 150ff; physical blessings promised for repentance and obedience, 193f; curses promised for disobedience, 192-195; only in force when in the promised land, 193-196; Passover of Ezra 6 a renewal of, 203-205; words of spo- ken by God Himself on Pentecost, 274; ratified with blood of oxen on day after Pentecost, 274; based on blood of animal sacrifices, 299; eternal life never offered to mankind under, 288-289; shortcomings of, 288ff; a foretype of fulfillment of New Covenant, 293ff; replaced by Christ’s sacrifice, 300ff, 376ff; book of the covenant, 377; likened to a legal marriage agreement, 377f; based on obedience, 377; events at termination of, 378ff; ended the same night approximately 1500 years after instituted by Jehovah Elohim, 389; came to an end in 30 AD, 389; see also Deuteronomy 28; National blessings; Political blessings; Jehovah Elohim

Covenant, Semitic, 198

Covenantal law, expounded, 270-272, 303-314; placed in force upon the symbolic death of the ratifier, 305; see also Bebaia; Diatheekee; Epi nikrois; Maledictory oath; Ratification; Testamental law

Creator, see Jesus Christ; Jehovah Elohim

Crucifixion, of Jesus, details of, 355ff; occurred near Miphkad Altar on Mount of Olives, 374; significance of darkness which covered Jerusalem, 378ff; significance of veil ripped in two, 378ff; significance of great earthquake, 379ff; significance of opening of doors of the Holy Place, 379ff; see also Temple-centered Passover

Cursive Script, of ancient Hebrew and Samaritan scrolls, 183

Cutting of the covenant, description and explanation of, 303-304; see also Maledictory oath; Ratification

Cyrus, king of Persia, 203


Daily burnt-offering, when instituted and offered, moved from sunrise to afternoon, 103; chronological order of, 104; instructions for given in Numbers 28:1-8, 109; time of according to the Mishnah, 213; see also Evening sacrifice; Morning sacrifice; Whole burntoffering

Darius, son of Ahasuerus, 200

Darius Hystaspes, his promulgation of new Passover law throughout the Persian Empire, 190-191; sixth year of, 204; see also Data; Deuteronomy 16; Elephantine; Ezra; Sanballat

Darkness, at crucifixion of Jesus, 378-379; see also Earthquake; Lailah; Night; Resurrection; Veil

Data, Persian title for new lawbook of Ezra, 178ff

David, king of Israel 1050- 1010 BC; father of Solomon, 126; ancestor of Josiah, 150

Day, Biblically reckoned from sunset to sunset, 1, 28, 35; confirmed by study of Leviticus 23, 46; Scriptural definition of, 57; used sometimes to mean the daylight portion of a day, 72-73; sequence of defined, 73-74; see also Atonement, Boqer; Ennuxon; Lailah; Midnight; Morning; Night; Sunset; Watches; Yohm

Day’s delay, an analysis of the error in teaching such, 86-87

Daybreak, translation of boqer by Everett Fox, 65, 69

Dead works, see Blood of Christ

Death of Jesus Christ, ended Old Covenant and established New, 376ff; see also Jesus Christ

Death penalty, earned by becoming the servant of sin, 348

Dei, Greek word denoting obligation by law or duty, 231; use of in reference to time for killing of Passover lambs, Luke 22:7, 231; use of in John 4:23- 24 applied to NT Passover observance, 391-392; see also Obedience

Deliberate alterations, to text of OT, 184; see also Conspiracy; Editing; Ezra; Mistranslations; Rabbis; Scholarship

Destroyer, passed through land of Egypt at midnight Nisan 14, 58, 96, 167

Dt. 16:4, phrase “at even” means “at sunset,” 49-50

Deuteronomy 16, contains specific instructions for celebrating the “night to be much remembered” 165, 187

Deuteronomy 16:1-8, interpreted as abolishing domestic Passover, 159; used to justify temple sacrifice of Passover lambs, 159; used to justify combining Passover and first day of Unleavened Bread, 159ff; contains commands for Unleavened Bread, not for the Passover, 159ff; the only Scriptures that connect term “Passover” with being brought out of Egypt, 164, 174; edited by Ezra to reflect current usage of term “Passover” 166; cannot apply to the Passover night, 164-165; does not teach a Nisan 15 Passover, 172-173; misleading interpretation of by proponents of Nisan 15 Passover, 174; mistranslation of Hebrew bashal, 168-169, 173; edited to reflect terminology of Ezra’s day, 174ff; historical circumstances leading to modifications of, 174ff; used to support Nisan 15 Passover because of later terminology of Ezra, 174; used to support Nisan 15 Passover because no numbered days given in, 175; rabbis confirm that term “passover-offerings” cannot be the Passover lamb, 216; see also Abib; Ezra; Harmony; Judaism; Mishnah; Rabbis

Deuteronomy 16:1, in direct conflict with command in Exodus 12:12-13, 166- 167, describes night of the Exodus, 170-171

Deuteronomy 16:2, peaceoffering of the herd, as well as the flock, 167-168

Deuteronomy 16:2, 5, 6, only verses in Pentateuch which describe Unleavened Bread offerings are described as Passoverofferings, 171, 187

Deuteronomy 16:3, commands that Passoveroffering be eaten seven days, 168; error of “Passover offering” codified in Mishnah, 212; Passover offerings to be eaten with unleavened bread, 212; see also Mishnah

Deuteronomy 16:4, refers to first day of Unleavened Bread, 170; refers to peace and thank offerings during the Feast of Unleavened Bread, 170-171; see also Judaism

Deuteronomy 16:6, refers to Feast of Unleavened Bread sacrifices, 166

Deuteronomy 16:7, incorrect translation of Hebrew bashal as “roast,” 168-168 -169; bashal correctly translated as “boil” by RSV, New English Version and Berkeley, 169; special observance of Nisan 15, 171; see also Fox; Magil

Deuteronomy 16:8, apparent contradiction explained, 171-172; see also Ezra; Rabbinic

Deuteronomy, 16:16, assembling for Passover not commanded in this passage, only annual holy days, 165

Deuteronomy 28, enumerates Old Covenant political and physical blessings and curses, 192

Deuteronomy 28:1-14, blessings enumerated, 192

Deuteronomy 28:15-68, curses enumerated, 192

Diana, of Ephesians, 130; see also Mary; Semiramis

Diatheekee, Greek noun wrong l y tran s l a ted “testament” in Hebrews 9:15, 304-305; rightly translated “covenant” in Hebrews 8:6, 8, 9, 10 and 9:4, 304; see also Covenant, New

Discrepancies, twelve major ones between Deuteronomy 16 and Passover ordinances, 165, 172

Divination, practiced in Baal worship, 136

Doctrine, should not be formed by doctrinal boards, 12-14; rules for studying, 14f; not established with Strong’s Concordance alone, 24-25; based on Bible interpreting itself, 32; see also Bible study; Mistranslations; Scholarship

Domestic Passover, time of Christ, 1; attested by Flavius Josephus, 17, still being practiced in Josephus’ day, 29; practiced by Israel after the Exodus, 101-102; no instructions for change to tabernacle, 104ff, Philo testifies of a domestic Passover at time of Christ, 112; not supplanted by temple sacrifices, 118, 157, 168; replaced by temple sacrifice during time of Hezekiah, 141ff; Deuteronomy 16 used to justify abolishing, 159ff; not same as a temple “Passover offering” 168-169; observed by renegade Samaritan priests, 180 -182; at time of Ezra, 206; at time of Antiochus Epiphanes, 209; the prevailing practice in Jesus’ time, 210; observed by Jesus, 211; written out of the law by the Mishnah, 214; excluded in Joachim Jeremias’ calculations, 216ff; was being slain as Jesus and disciples entered Jerusalem, 237-238; see also Chronology; Ezra; Ethuon; Hezekiah; Josephus; Josiah; Mishnah; Philo; Red heifer; Second Passover

Doulos, Greek for “slave” translated “servant” in Phil. 2:5-8, 337

Drink-offering, see Wineoffering

Duality, of Godhead; see Elohim; Jehovah

Dusk, JPSA translates ben ha arbayim thus in Numbers 9:1-3, 25; Exodus 16:11-12, 46-47, 52; a period of time from 1 PM to sunset in Rabbinic teaching, 26f; referred to as the “evening of day” 27; Passover lambs killed during, 56-57, 66, 119; see also Evening; Rashi


Ean, alternate spelling of Greek particle An, 257-258

Earthquake, at time Jesus died, 379ff; see also Darkness; Resurrection; Veil

Easter, phonetic pronunciation of Ishtar, goddess of the Babylonians, a pagan festival, replaced true Passover observance, 3, 135; Ishtar of the Babylonians, 130-131; observance adopted in place of NT Passover, 237; as celebrated by mainstream Christianity, 135, 237; participating in cannot renew the New Covenant, 390; see also Bacchiocchi; Communion; Eucharist; Lord’s Supper; Mass; Semiramis

Ecumenical movement, of Solomon, 126-127

Edersheim, Alfred, rabbi who converted to Christianity, also taught that ben ha arbayim is in the afternoon, 27-28; records details of harvesting Wave Sheaf, 37-38; his account of “the greater festival area” of Jerusalem, 177; his account of templekilled Passover lambs, 215; his account of rending of temple veil, 381ff; see also Crucifixion; Earthquake; Kaplan, Martin; Rashi; Resurrection; Veil

Editing, Ezra’s, 142; of Deuteronomy 16 to reflect later terminology, 172; of Old Testament, 174ff; confirmed by Ezekiel 45:21, 172; by Ezra under authority of king of Persia, 178- 179; historical circumstances behind, 180-182; done to preserve true text and prevent misunderstandings, 184-185; to update geographical terms, 185; by Ezra following example left by Moses and Samuel, 185; of Genesis 2:14 by Moses, 185; of Deuteronomy 31:26 by Samuel, 185; see also Conspiracy; Deuteronomy; Ezekiel; Ezra; Jesus Christ; Rabbis; Scholarship

Education, of Jesus, not Pharisaic but directly from God the Father, 223-224

Egypt, dominant world power before Passover and Exodus, 65; spoiling of firstborn, 81-84, 96; estimated size of population at Exodus, 98

Egyptian Calendar, its influence on Nisan 15 Passover of Judaism, 208

El, Phoenician Ugaritic name for Baal, 131; see also ‘Il

Elements, of original Passover and Exodus, 55-84; Element 1, 56-57, 85; Element 2, 57-58, 85; Element 3, 58-65, 85, Element 4, 65-69; 85; Element 5, 70-72, 77, 85, 87; Element 6, 72-81, 77, 85, 88, 91, 94, 103; Element 7, 81-84, 85; Element 8, 86-100; Summary of all Passover Elements, 85-86

Elephantine, Jewish mercenary colony of, 190-191; Jewish temple of, 191, 204; unauthorized sacrifices of, 204

Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani, 309, 379.

Eliashib, high priest at time of Nehemiah, 180; grandson married to daughter of Sanballat, 180; see also Ezra; Manasseh

Eliezer, Mishnic rabbi, 215

Elijah, and worshippers of Baal, 134-135

Elohim, Hebrew plural name for God meaning “Creator God” 327; two Elohim in the Godhead, the Father and the Word, 327; incorrectly translated “angel” in Psalm 8:5, 329; see also Creator; Father; God; Jehovah; Jesus Christ

Ennuxon, Greek noun meaning “in the night” incorr e c t l y tr a n s l a t e d “morning” in Mark 1:35, 81

Ephesians 1:16-23, amplified translation of, 396

Ephesians 3:1-21, amplified translation of, 393ff

Epi nikrois, a Greek phrase grossly mistranslated as “after men are dead” 305; referring to animals that are slain to ratify a covenant, 306; not referring to the death of the ratifier, 305; phrase actually means, “upon (or over) the dead ones” 306; see also Bebaia; Covenantal law

Equinox, of the spring sacred to worshipers of Baal, 133

Ereb, variant pronunciation of Hebrew noun erev, 23- 24

Erev, Hebrew noun meaning “the setting of the sun,” 24, 50; root of prepositional phrase ba erev” meaning “at sunset” 35; see also Ereb; Leviticus 15

Esther, 178; book of, 178; see also Artaxerxes; Ezra; Haman; Mordecai

Eternal life, God’s plan for, 7; manifested in NT Passover, 7-10; not offered to mankind under Old Covenant, 288, 300; promise of under New Covenant, 288, 300; mankind cut off from by sin of Adam and Eve, 332ff; see also Part; Salvation

Ethuon, Greek verb used in Mark 14:12 to indicate that slaying of the domestic Passover lambs was in progress the very moment Jesus sent his disciples to prepare the Passover, 238; see also Luke 22:7; Thuo

Eucharist, replaced true Passover observance, 7-8; pagan custom adopted in place of NT Passover, 237; how celebrated, 247; celebration of cannot renew the New Covenant, 390- 392; see also Bacchiocchi; Catholicism; Communion; Mass

Evening, meaning of word confused with meaning of ben ha arbayim, 23; called “dusk” or “evening of day” by Rashi, 26-27; meaning sunset, not afternoon, 45, 50; Kaplan falsely translates ba erev as evening, 49; see also At even; Ba erev; Dt. 16:4; Ex. 12:18; Gen. 1:3-5; Gen. 19:1; Gen. 29:23; In the evening; Migil; Towards evening

Evening sacrifice, ordinarily slain at 2:30 PM and offered as whole burnt offering at 3:30 PM, 28; slain at 1:30 PM and offered at 2:30 PM on Fridays, 28; only sacrifice commanded for Passover at tabernacle, 109ff; see also Daily burnt-offering; Edersheim, Gesenius, Kuhn, Grabbe, Whole burntoffering

Evening watch, see also First watch; Lamentations 2:19

Ex. 12:18, phrase “at even” means at sunset, 34, 50

Ex. 30:8, defines ben ha arbayim as twilight, 49-50

Exile, the curse for breaking covenant with God, 195ff

Exod. 12:1-13:16, 118

Exodus, and Passover not the same, 17; does not commemorate Passover, 17; Exodus commemorated by Feast of Unleavened Bread, 18, 167; events of Passover and Exodus collapsed together by Nisan 15 proponents, 70; Israel did not begin Exodus immediately after midnight, 72; Exodus and Passover did not occur on same night, 72; Rashi and Ibn Ezra the source of a midnight Exodus theory adopted by Kuhn and Grabbe, 76; a redemption, 85; Exodus did not begin as soon as Israelites left their houses, 90-94; logistics explained, 91-94; number of Israelites involved, 92; meaning of; 95; Jews acknowledge Passover and Exodus two separate feasts, 116; a memorial of leaving Egypt, 88, 99; not a memorial of Passover, 88; assembling at Rameses for, 90; began at Rameses and not from houses, 91; assembled for on daylight portion of 14th, 90-91; logistics of, 92ff; marching orders for, 92; compared with Rose Parade, 93ff; conclusions of Lieutenant Colonels at Fort Ord, California, concerning, 93-94; not a night of watching for destroyer, 95-96; a night of God’s watching over, 95-96; celebrated by seven days of Feast of Unleavened Bread, 98ff; crossing of Red Sea on seventh day of Feast of Unleavened Bread, 99-100; never commemorated the “passing over” of the Lord, 166; began at night, Numbers 33, 166-167; a direct fulfillment of God’s covenant promises to Abraham, 192, 299; see also Day’s delay; Nisan 15; Selfsame day; Tents; Unleavened Bread

Exodus 12, 18, 29, 30, 36, 46, 50-51, 53, 55; 56, 59, 61-63, 65-66, 68, 70, 72, 74, 75, 83, 88, 90, , 95, 96, 102, 103, 106, 107, 111- 112, 115, 116, 119, 121, 122, 144, 147, 149, 153, 156f, 158, 159, 166, 168, 173, 175, 189, 205, 209, 211, 214, 218, 229, 230, 236, 238, 240, 241, 242; see also Assemble; Exodus; Harmony; Nisan 14; Nisan 15; Passover; Selfsame day; Unleavened Bread

Exodus 12:3-46, outline of Passover events, 19

Exodus 12:6, 28, 29, 52-53, 57, 231; and use of Shacht, meaning to kill or sacrifice, not keep, 22, Jewish interpretation of, 40; Rashis teaching regarding meaning of ben ha arbayim, 26-27

Exodus 12:4-6, meaning of clarified by use of Hebrew ad, 56

Exodus 12:47-48, and use of Asah meaning to observe or keep, not kill, 22

Exodus 16:1, events of occurred thirty-one days after the Exodus, 42; literal translation of, 41-42

Exodus 30:7-8, Incense Offering, 104

Ezekiel 12:7, defines twilight as a period of time approaching darkness, 49

Ezekiel 45:21, confirms editing of Ezra, 172

Ezra, wrote the books of Chronicles, 142-143; did not write books of Kings, only edited, 148; his detailed account of templecentered Passovers in II Chronicles 35, 156; his editing of Deuteronomy 16, 165-166, 179; possible editing of Deuteronomy 16:8, 171-174; the 14th Passover of Ezra 6, 176- 177; his centralization of Passover to temple, 176ff, 204f; his account of Hezekiah’s passover in II Chronicles 30, 141ff; his account of temple-centered Passover of Josiah in II Chronicles 35, 150ff; editing of Deuteronomy 16, 166, 174; promulgation of a “new Passover law” throughout the Persian Empire, 190-191; great status and authority of within government of Persian Empire, 178-180; great grandson of Hilkiah, the high priest during Josiah’s reign, 178; new royal lawbook of Ezra, 178ff; powers granted by king of Persia, 178; considered the second founder of Judaism, 179; summary of his canonization effort, 183; deliberate alterations to text of OT not vast, 184- 185; sole purpose of his editing, 183-184; historical substantiation of new Passover law, 190-191; summary of his modification of Passover law, 165-172; renamed “peace-offerings” 212; not without authority to issue new Passover law, 205; see also Canonization; Darius Hystaspes; Data; Editing; Elephantine; Lawbook

Ezra 6:19-22, and use of asah, shacht and akal showing the meaning of keeping the Passover, 22; records that Passover was killed and eaten on Nisan 14, 21, 177

Ezra 7:1-28, Ezra’s great authority under Artaxerxes, 179


Faith, and its relationship to the Law, 250f; of Abraham, 267-269, 280, 295; kind exercised by Abraham the kind that is required for salvation, 286; true faith leads to loving obedience, 290; Sarah strengthened by, 294; living by, 312; see also Believing; Justification; Salvation

False religion, origin and description of 13, 130-131, 182

Family of God, we enter at resurrection, 330; entrance into made possible through the blood of Christ, 352; see also Blood of Christ; Born again; Church of God; Covenant; New Israel; Resurrection

Feast of Passover, separate in meaning from Feast of Unleavened Bread, 90; combining of Passover and Unleavened Bread occurred during reign of Josiah, 154ff

Feast of Tabernacles, kept by remnant returning from Babylonian captivity, 204; Tabernacles, festival of, sacrifices required for in OT, 109, 117; not kept since days of Solomon, 141

Fire worship, 149; see also Baal; Judah; Manasseh; Molech

First evening, a rabbinic term for the “first sunset” of ben ha arbayim or that time when the sun begins to descend toward sunset, therefore a pseudo-sunset of ben ha arbayim, 29; called “little evening” by the Arabs, 29; believed by Kuhn and Grabbe to be the “first sunset” of ben ha arbayim; see also Gesenius; Second evening

First of the Unleaveneds, a common term at the time of Christ understood to mean Nisan 14, 228ff, 237

First Watch, from 6 to 10 PM, 80; see also Evening watch

Firstborn of Egypt, not destroyed on Nisan 15, 96- 97; destruction of prophesied four hundred years before actual event, 272- 273

Firstborn of Israel, 17; of Egypt, died at midnight Nisan 14, not midnight Nisan 15, 70; see also Josephus

Flesh of Jesus, replaced His divinity, 327-329, 3 3 7 ; meaning o f “manifest in the flesh” 337ff; purpose for which He emptied Himself of divine glory, 337; had the same flesh and nature as all human beings, 339; contained the law of sin and death, 341ff; subject to death, needed to be saved from, 344-345; see also Blood of Christ; Crucifixion; Homoioo; Jesus Christ

Flesh of mankind, and relationship to sacrifice of Jesus Christ 312; baptism represents death of old sinful self, 320; see also Baptism; Flesh of Jesus; Human nature

Flies, plague of, 63, 79

Flood, of Noah, 197-198

Footwashing, mandatory for all Christians 8, 242-244, 316; meaning of, 242; first ordinance of NT Passover service, 242; Timing of footwashing at Jesus’ last Passover, 441ff; practiced by Pope on eve of Easter, 242; necessary for salvation, 242-243; explanation of phrase “and supper being ended” 243; and meaning of “part” 243-244; teaches true humility, 315- 316; renewal of baptism through, 321; see also Baptism; Dei; Humility; Part; Passover; The Unleavened Bread; The wine;

Fox, Everett, translator of The Schocken Bible 5, 25; translates ben ha arbayim as “between the settingtimes” 25, 31, 46, 51f; his translation of Numbers 9:2 -5, 25; defines a Hebrew day as from sunset to sunset, 35; translates ba erev as “at sunset,” 45; his translation of Exodus 16:13, 46, 51; his translation of Exodus 16:11-12, 46, 51; his translation of Leviticus 23:5, 51; his translation of Exodus 12:6, 66; his translation of Exodus 12:4, 57; his translation of Exodus 12:7, 58; his translation of bashal as boil, 169;

Free moral agency, Adam and Eve created with, 331; see also Philosophy

Full moon, and length of ben ha arbayim, 50


Gad, a phonetic variation of the Hebrew preposition ad

Galatians 4:4-5, see also Grace of God; Under the law

Gamliel, Rabbi, and details of temple-centered Passover, 216

Gen. 19:1, phrase “at even” means at sunset, 50

Gen. 29:23, phrase “in the evening” means at sunset, 50

Genesis 15, and Abramic Covenant, 1, 266, 267, 271, 272, 278,288, 309; chart of comparing the covenant sacrifices of Genesis 15 with the death of Jesus Christ, 307f

Genesis 17, introduction of circumcision, 278

Genesis 22, chart of comparing the covenant sacrifices of Genesis 22 with the death of Jesus Christ, 308

Gennoomenon, Greek participle for “being begotten” used of Mary’s impregnation by the power of the Highest, Luke 1:35, 337

Genomai, Greek verb meaning, “to come into being” root of genomenou, 243

Genomenou, Greek participle mistranslated “being ended” 243; could be translated “as supper was beginning” 243; see also John 13:2

Gesenius, also gives Pharisaic, albeit not his main definition of ben ha arbayim, as a period of time in the afternoon, 28f; see also Kaplan; Rashi

Ghihphazohn, a Hebrew noun translated “haste” 67- 68

Ginooskoo, Greek verb translated “knew” 343

Godhead, plan of for mankind, 6, 9, 328ff, love of, 9 -11, 327-328; nature of, 324ff; nature of revealed through His names, 325; the duality of, 327f; the Father revealed to mankind by Jesus Christ, 328; the Father not the God of the OT, 327-328; see also Eternal Life; Salvation; Jehovah Elohim

Golden calf, of Israelites borrowed from Egyptian divinity for Osiris, 130; see also Baal; Baalim; Beth-el; Jeroboam

Goshen, land of, located in northeastern section of Nile delta, 58, 63; home of Israelites in Egypt, location of first Passover, 58; account of Israel’s moving into, 63; and communication to spoil Egyptians, 82

Gospel, another being taught by mainstream Christendom, 252; mystery of, 354; see also Eternal life; Family of God; Grace of God; Jesus Christ

Grabbe, Lester, does not know meaning of Passover, 16; falsely limits Passover events to killing the Passover lamb, 18; supports false rabbinic definition of ben ha arbayim, 30, 49; admits original Passover slain between sunset and darkness, 31; his elevation of modern scholarship over Scripture, 31-32; falsely believes Israel kept the Passover at Rameses, 61- 62; falsely defines boqer as beginning just after midnight and lasting to dawn, 75-81; his obvious mistranslation of ennuxon in Mark 1:35, 80-81; his misuse of phrase habboqer, 80; grave doubt cast on his honesty as a scholar, 81; his support of rabbinic tradition of 15th Passover, 87; his naive notions about the complexity of the Exodus, 92; falsely teaches that domestic Passover moved to tabernacle/ temple after second Passover, 101; see also Boqer; Ennuxon; Ibn Ezra; Kuhn; Lailah; Mark 1:35; Migil; Morning; Rashi; Ruth; Samaritans; Scholarship

Grace of God, shown in His sending the manna, 43-45; shown in His sending the quail, 47; of God toward rebellious Israel, 125, toward Ezra and return of exiled Jews, 182; shown to Noah, 197; promise of eternal life made possible through, 301; and death of Jesus, 339; maintained only through obedience to God’s commandments, 350-351; see also Blood of Christ; Faith; Justification; Obedience; Spiritual growth; Under the law

Great Synagogue, see Ezra; The Great Assembly

Great White Throne Judgment, 389

Greater festival area, term applied to cities in vicinity of Jerusalem which were designated for observance of Passover, 177, 189; and “new Passover law” 190-191, slaying of domestic Passover restricted to by Ezra, 206; at time of Jesus, 210

Greek New Testament, Stephens Text of 1550 most accurate, 5; see also Received Text; Translation


Ha, the Hebrew definite article translated “the” 25; used in the prepositional phrase “ben ha arbayim” 25

Habboqer, a Hebrew phrase simply meaning “the morning” not a special word for “morning” as Grabbe implies, 80

Hagiographa, the Psalms and other writings, one of the three divisions of the Old Testament, 183

Hallel, recited by Levitical singers during traditional temple-centered sacrificing of Passover lambs, 214

Halo, the nimbus that enclosed Baal, 131; see also Sun worship

Hananiah, brother of Nehemiah, delivered rescript enforcing new Passover law, 190; see also Ezra; The Great Assembly

Harmony, a comparison of Exodus 12, 13, 23, 34, Numbers 9 and Deuteronomy 16, 160-163

Haste, a state of mind in which Israel ate the first Passover, not a physical action, 67-68; see also Ghihphazohn; Trepidation

Heave-offering, Exodus 29:28, 103

Heaven, no man has ascended to except Jesus Christ, 328

Hebrew Calendar, a calculated calendar, 2; changed by Jeroboam, 127f; referred to, 390; see also Equinox

Hebrew Christians, clung to Jewish temple sacrifices for salvation, 374-375; see also Sacrificial system

Hebrew words related to Passover, 21-22

Hebrews, Book of, contrasts vast difference between Old and New Covenants, 301; contrasts Aaronic Priesthood with our High Priest, 301; exposition of Covenant Law in, 304- 314; expounds ceremonial and sacrificial laws, 299ff; expounds superiority of New Covenant, 299ff; expounds Old and New Covenants, 299ff; see also Ceremonial law; Covenant; Flesh of Jesus; Hebrews 2:17; Homoioo

Hebrews 2:14, Greek parapleesioos, translated “likewise” in reference to humanity of Jesus, 339- 340

Hebrews 2:17, see also Flesh of Jesus; Homoioo; Opheiloo

Hebrews 4:15-16, use of Greek kath omoioteeta, meaning “in every way as we are” 243; in reference to Jesus’ temptations, 342f

Hebrews 9:16-17, correct translation of, 305-306

Hellenism, its influence on The Great Assembly, 206f

Herd, translated from Hebrew word baqar, meaning bovine, 167; used for burnt, peace or thankofferings, 167; never used for Passover sacrifice itself, 167; see also Baqar; Deuteronomy 16; Offerings; Passover offerings

Herodotus, describes many religious customs of Egypt adopted by Judaism, 207- 208

Hezekiah, one of the few righteous kings of Judah, reigned 723-695 BC; and Passover observance, 102; his revival of Judah and renewal of the Covenant, 140-141; his epoch Passover and Feast of Unleavened Bread, 141ff; invites Ephraim and Manasseh to keep Passover in Jerusalem, 141; his kingly authority to restore Passover observance, 142-143; reasons for centralizing the Passover, 141ff; first indication of Passover lambs slain on afternoon of Nisan 14, 143ff, 220; term “Passover” not yet established as name for entire eight days, 143; first record of Passover slain at temple, 143, 147 186ff; Passover of not slain during ben ha arbayim, 145; summary of difference between his and original, 146; only Ezra recorded the epoch Passover of, 186; see also Domestic Passover; Ezra; Josiah; Second Passover; Temple

Hierarchy, 12-13; the religious/ governmental system of Jeroboam, 128; Christians have no need for a priesthood of men, 352; see also Religion

High day, in John 19:30-31, the day of the Jews’ Passover, 373; see also Holy days; John 19:31; Preparation day

Hilkiah, high priest during reign of Josiah, found lost Book of the Law, 151; commanded by Josiah to purge temple, 152-153; greatgrandfather of Ezra, 178

Hist. v.13, 381

History, a survey of Israel’s and Judah’s, 124ff; a survey of Abraham’s life with God, 278-281

Holy days, commanded by God in Exodus 23 and 34, and Deuteronomy 16, 164- 165; not abolished in Christ, 250; referred to as statutes, in force from Creation to Moses’ day, 279; all based on Passover sacrifice, 375; see also Commandments; High day; John 19:31; Mark 15:42; Preparation day

Holy Spirit, not offered to people under Old Covenant, 299; begettal of through repentance, baptism and laying on of hands, 301; power of to impart spiritual understanding through implanting mind of Christ, 301; enables believers to pray directly to the Father, 312; baptism required for the receipt of, 319; unites with the spirit of man at conversion, 330; mankind cut off from by sin of Adam and Eve, 334; placed in Church of God upon receiving, 352; see also Baptism; Calling; Conversion; Laying on of hands; Law of sin and death; Repentance; Salvation; Spirit of man; Trinity

Homoioma, Greek word meaning “the very same” translated “likeness” in Phil. 2:7 in reference to Jesus’ humanity, 337; see also Human nature

Homoioo, Greek verb meaning, “to make like,” “become like,” “be like” translated “to be made exactly like” in Hebrews 2:17, 340, 468

Homoioomati, Greek derivation of homoioma, translated “likeness” in Rom. 8:3, 341

Homosexuals, see Baal

Host of heaven, worshiped in Baalism, 136, 149

Houses, location of Israelites when they slew and ate Passover lambs, 57-59; translated from Hebrew noun bayith, 59ff; location of Israel during Passover, Israel did not leave houses before Passover as Josephus claims, 60-65; Israel did not leave until daybreak of Nisan 14, 71

Huldah, the Prophetess, words of concerning Josiah, 151

Human nature, man created with independent free choice, 324; creative ability a little lower than Elohim, 329, characteristics of, 329; includes gift of language and capacity to choose, 331; changed when Adam and Eve sinned, 331ff; evil attributes of, 333-336; called the “law of sin and death” 333, 341; full exposition of, 334ff; is very sin itself, a sin to have, 335; passed on by heredity, 335; subject to Satan’s deceptions because of, 336; Jesus born with same nature as all humans, 337, 340; see also Adam and Eve; Homoiooma

Human sacrifices, see Cannibalism

Humility, of Christ at last Passover, 315-316, 322- 323; see also Footwashing

Huparchoon, Greek participle meaning, “actually being” “actually existing as” or “actually [pre-] existing as” used in Phil. 2:6 in reference to Jesus’ divinity, 336; see also Homoioma

Hupo, Greek preposition meaning, “under” used in Gal. 4:4 to show that Christ was “under the power of” the law, 342


Ibn Ezra, rabbi of middleages, espoused midnight Exodus theory based on Pharaoh’s command to Moses, 76; see also. Grabbe; Kuhn; Rashi

Idolatry, see Baal; Easter;

Lord’s Supper; Mary; Mass; Sun worship

Il, chief deity of the Ugaritic pantheon, Phoenician Ugaritic name for Baal, 131; see also El

Immortality, granted to saints when Jesus Christ returns, 292-293, 295; see also Eternal life

In the evening, a phrase meaning “at sunset” 45, 50

Intellect, human, cannot fathom spiritual knowledge, 301; see also Holy Spirit; Human nature; Spirit of man

Inwards, of Passover lambs were the edible internal organs, 66

Isaac, Abramic Covenant established with, 281-287; chosen to be heir of the covenant, 281; promised Seed came through him, 281; the promised son, 282 -283; his complete trust in his father, 284; a lamb miraculously provided in his stead, 284-285; the miraculous conception of, 294-295; a foreshadow of Jesus conception and birth, 295; foreshadowed the ordeal of Jesus, 296; see also Covenant, Abramic

Isaiah 28:9-10, 11

Isaiah, Rabbi Abraham Ben, mistranslates bashal in Deuteronomy 16:7 as roast, 169; see also Basha l ; Con s p i racy; Sharfman

Ishmael, circumcised but not the promised seed, 281- 282; God’s blessing on, 282

Ishtar, Babylonian name for Semiramis, 130-131; see also Easter; Nimrod; Osiris

Isis, Egyptian name for Semiramis, 130; see also Nimrod; Osiris

Israel, repeated apostasies of, 124ff; split into kingdoms of Israel and Judah 971-970 BC, 127; prophecy of exile, 129; pagan gods of, 129-135; the first to go into exile, 199; see also Jeroboam

Israelites, commanded to remain in houses until morning, 58-60; observed first Passover in their houses, 58-60


Jas. 1:17, 46; God is not doubleminded

Jehoram, wicked king of Judah 888-881 BC, led Judah into whoredom of Jeroboam, 139

Jehoshaphat, one of the few righteous kings of Judah 909-885 BC, 139; see also Asa

Jehovah, Hebrew name for the two Gods of the Old Testament meaning “Covenant God”, see also Elohim; Jehovah Elohim

Jehovah Elohim, Hebrew name translated: “LORD God,” 325; one of the two Jehovah Elohim became the Father of the New Covenant and the other became the Jesus Christ of the New Covenant, 327; one was manifested as the Son of God in sinful human flesh, 337ff; died on the cross for the sins of the world, 347ff; His marriage -like relationship with physical Israel, 377-378; one is known to us as the Son and the other as the Father, 378; Who became the Son instituted the Old Covenant, 389; see also Elohim; Jehovah; Jesus Christ

Jer. 6:4, “the shadows of the evening” defined as twilight, not afternoon, 49

Jer. 7:18, 135; see also Queen of heaven; Semiramis

Jeremiah, prophet who condemned Israel’s worship of Baal, 135; sent by God to give final warning to Judah, 199

Jer. Yoma 43c, 381

Jeroboam, first king of ten tribes of Israel 970-949 BC, 127; introduced Babylonian worship of the king, 128; established Babylonian religious and governmental system in Israel, 128; and the altar at Bethel, 127-129; abominable state of religion of, 127ff; see also Josiah; Prophesy

Jerusalem Bible, translates ben ha arbayim “towards evening” and “at evening,” 52

Jesus Christ, the true Passover Lamb of God, 6, 299; slain for our redemption 7- 8; sent by the Father, 11; kept domestic Passover with His disciples, 112, 220; Author of true religion, 135; kept Feast of Unleavened Bread according to Ex. 23:14; 34:18, and Deut. 16:16, 221-223; not educated in Pharisaic schools, 223-226; kept domestic Passover on Nisan 14, 232ff; last Passover not a pre-Passover meal, 221ff; ate the Passover and not the “Lord’s Supper” 232ff; and New Covenant, 299ff; and meaning of our part in His ministry, 316ff; washed disciples’ feet in humility, 322; meaning of His body, 324ff; the Spiritual Seed of Abraham, 267, 288ff; the Son of God, 293; the Passover lamb of the New Covenant, 299; spiritual brothers and sisters of, 301; High Priest of the New Covenant, 302; only Mediator of the New Covenant, 302-303, 310; the ratifier and mediator of the New Covenant, 310; created mankind, 327; created the universe, 324; not a created being, 327; became human flesh, 327ff; was God of OT, called the Word in the NT, 327ff; came to reveal the Father, 328; meaning of His being manifest in the flesh, 336ff; had been one of the Jehovah Elohim of the Old Testament, 337, 343; process by which He emptied Himself to become flesh, 337-338; received His human nature through Mary, 337, 341; fully capable of sinning, 342; was made a little lower than the angels to redeem mankind, 345; inherited the law of sin and death, 337ff; had to be saved from death, 344- 345; was our sin offering, 374-375; was crucified on Mount of Olives near Miphkad Altar, 374; see also Flesh of Jesus; Homoioma; Homoioo; Homoioomati; Huparchoon; Kath omoioteeta; Mary; Nature of God; Opheiloo; Parapleesioos

Jewish Passover, observed on Nisan 15, 221ff; see also Judaism; Preparation day; Seder meal

Jewish Publication Society of America, see JPSA; Tanakh

Jewish tradition, and original Passover, 1, 26ff; begun after 70-year Babylonian captivity, 1; followed by Kuhn and Grabbe, 18; regarding ben ha arbayim, 26-32; and Rabbi Kaplan, 48ff; and Passover chronology; 60; of Passover at Rameses, 61-62; chosen by Kuhn and Grabbe over Scripture, 87; observes seven days of Passover and Unleavened Bread, 86f; not supported by Scripture, 101; of temple- centered Passover acknowledged as later practice, 103; inserted into new JPS translation, 110; combines Passover meal with first day of Unleavened Bread, 115; advocates of view original Passover as “weird,” 122; practice of temple-centered Passover instituted by kings of Judah, 157; Nisan 15 Passover never commanded by God, 173; Deuteronomy 16 misapplied to 15th Passover, 174; rejected by Jesus Christ, 221-222; see also Deuteronomy 16:8; Judaism; Mishnah; Pesach; Pharisees; Rashi

Jewish translations, as researched by author, 110; see also Conspiracy; Mistranslation; Rabbis

Jews, have lost meaning of Passover, 2; only one of twelve tribes, should not be referred to as Israel, 127

Jezebel, high priestess of Asherah, 160

Job, the patriarch, and lesson of perfection, 354; see also Spiritual growth

John 2:23-25, and reference to Feast of Unleavened Bread as “the Passover of the Jews” 225

John 6:4, and reference to Feast of Unleavened Bread as “the Passover of the Jews” 225

John 12:1, reference to Jesus’ last Passover as “the Passover” 226

John 13:2, and mistranslation of Greek participle genomenon in reference to timing of footwashing, 243; correctly translated “as supper was beginning” 243

John 19:14-15, a reference to the preparation day for Nisan 15 and Jews’ Passover, 229, 233ff; see also Matthew 26:17; Mark 14:12; Luke 22:7; Preparation day

John 19:31, illustrates Jews’ combining of Passover with first high day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, 234

Jose, Rabbi, and details of temple-centered Passover, 216

Joseph, Israel’s favorite son, 63

Josephus, Flavius, testifies that Jews of 93-94 AD knew Passover named after events of Exodus 12, 17; and domestic Passover, 17; firstborn of Israel, 17; Passover and Feast of Unleavened Bread separate, 17-18; his account of the temple sacrifice, 30; an apologist for Pharisaic Judaism, 60; his false teaching concerning Passover at Rameses, 60- 61; records eight-day feast in his time, 116; his narrative of Samaritan temple, 181ff; records combining of Passover and Feast of Unleavened Bread, 211, 210-213; and the measurements of temple, 217; his account of the number of Passover lambs slain at temple, 218-219; records parallel observances of 14th and 15th Passovers, 220; see also Philo; Temple- centered Passover; Unleavened Bread

Josiah, king of Judah 637- 607 BC, and cultic centralization of Passover in his eighteenth year, 120- 121; first record of combining of Passover and Unleavened Bread, 120ff; prophesied by name during reign of Jeroboam, 128; commanded templecentered Passover, 148, 157, 168, 186, 220; revival of, 150ff, 199; fulfilled the prophecy of purging of high places of Ahaz and Manasseh, 152; account of his Passover, 153ff; first use of phrase “Passover offerings” 154; his Passover did not conform to the original ordinances in Exodus 12, 153-158; first indication of priests offering Passover lambs on the afternoon of 14th, II Chron. 35:1, 153-154; command for templecentered Passover due to national emergency, 151, 153, 174; only Ezra records epoch Passover of, 186; see also Deuteronomy 16:1-8; Ezra; Hezekiah; Hilkiah; Jeroboam

JPSA, an abbreviation meaning Jewish Publication Society of America, translates ben ha arbayim as “dusk” 25, 46; translates ba erev “evening” and “at even” 52; the Jewish translation quoted in some parts of the Passover book, 110; incorrectly translates Numbers 28:16, 110

Jub. 49:12, 20, 120

Judah, her covenant breaking and apostasy from God, 138ff, 149; her idolatry the reason for institution of temple-centered Passover, 136-137, 176; supports temple-centered Nisan 15 Passover, 158; and use of phrase “first day of Passover,” 170-171; Christians influenced by, 237; Ezra considered second founder of Judaism, 179; slave holding of condemned by God, 270-271; rejected by God the Father, 383ff; see also Catholicism, Covenant; Crucifixion; Hezekiah; Jewish tradition; Josiah; Judaism; Mishnah; Protestantism; Tradition

Judaism, leaders of condemned by Jesus Christ in Mark 7:6-8, 173; misinterpretation of Deuteronomy l6 to justify a Nisan 15 Passover, 174ff; Ezra considered second founder of, 179; see also Tradition

Judas Iscariot, 244

Judges, period of in Israel’s history, 125

Judgment, Great White Throne, 389

Justification, accomplished through faith in Jesus Christ, 250, 268; and the establishing of the Law, 250; offers right standing with God, with sins forgiven, 350; requires obedience to God’s commandments, 350; of God in the Spirit, 387-388; see also Blood of Christ; Obedience; Redemption; Salvation


Kaplan, Aryeh, Kabbalistic rabbi, 27; promotes Rashi’s false view that ben ha arbayim is the afternoon of the day, 28; his false translation of ben ha arbayim, 40, 48-49; correctly translates Numbers 28:16, 110; see also Conspiracy; Migil

Karaites, did not keep Passover outside of the land of Israel, 2, 203; define ben ha arbayim as sunset to darkness, 31; testify that Israel kept Passover in wilderness at twilight, 108; see also AlMagribi; Samaritans

Kath omoioteeta, Greek phrase meaning “according to the likeness of our temptations” 343; see also Hebrews 4:15-16; Temptation of Jesus Christ

Keeping, the Passover means eating the Passover, 21ff; meaning of keeping in NT, 21-22

Kidron Valley, 374; see also Miphkad Altar

King James Version, translates ba erev “at even” and “in the evening” 52; translates ben ha arbayim “at even” and “in the evening” 52; see also Translations

Kingdom of God, on earth, to be established by Jesus Christ at His return, 300; see also Resurrection

Kings, worship of on 15th of eighth month, 128; see also Jeroboam

Kleeros, Greek word meaning “lot” or “part,” Acts 1:25, 316f; see also Apost les; Footwashing; Meros; Part; Peter

Knowledge, of the truth of God, 13

Kuhn, Robert, does not know meaning of Passover, 18; falsely limits Passover events to killing the Passover lamb, 19; supports false rabbinic definition of ben ha arbayim, 30, 49; admits original Passover slain between sunset and darkness, 31; his elevation of modern scholarship over Scripture, 31-32; falsely believes Israel kept the Passover at Rameses, 61- 62; falsely defines boqer as beginning just after midnight and lasting to dawn, 75-81; his support of rabbinic tradition of 15th Passover, 87; his naive notions about the complexity of the Exodus, 91; falsely teaches that domestic Passover moved to tabernacle/ temple after second Passover, 101; see also Boqer; Ennuxon; Grabbe; Kaplan; Lailah; Mark 1:35; Migil; Rashi; Ruth; Scholarship


Lailah, Hebrew noun meaning the darkness of night, translated night, 66, 72- 75; cannot refer to any part of boqer, 77-81: see also Morning

Lake of fire, see Part

Lamb, Passover lambs originally sacrificed at home, 1, 18, 30, 85; killed by Jews late on afternoon of 14th, 28-29; not eaten during ben ha arbayim, 52; when killed is the heart of 14th/15th controversy, 56; a type of Christ, 56; slain at the beginning of Nisan 14 during ben ha arbayim, 57; slain at houses, 57-58; eaten at individual houses, 58; time and effort required to kill and roast, 66- 67; weight of by Passover, 66; error of placing sacrifice at end of 14th, 86-87; claim by proponents of 15th Passover that domestic sacrifice occurred only at original Passover, 101ff; age of at Passover, 241; Jesus Christ the true Lamb of God, 254; see also Boq e r ; Chro n o lo g y ; Josephus; Lailah; Passover meal; Passoverofferings; Philo

Language, see Adam and Eve; Philosophy

Law of God, magnified by New Covenant, not abolished, 249; obedience to required under New Covenant, 301; written in our hearts and minds, 301; see also Commandments; Faith; Justification

Law of sin and death, the changed nature of Adam and Eve, passed on to all mankind, 333ff; see also Blood of Christ; Human nature; Repentance

Lawbook, of Ezra, and changes in Passover observance, 179ff; see also Data

Lawlessness, opposite of love, 10; from Greek anomos, 10

Laying on of hands, for begettal of the Holy Spirit, 301; see also Baptism; Begettal; Church of God; Conversion

Leavening, description by Mishnah of search for, 229- 230; reference in rabbinical writings to burning of, 230

Lev. 15, removal of uncleanness defines erev as sunset, 49

Levites, original dedication of, 105-106; offered as a wave offering at dedication of the tabernacle, 106; at time of Rehoboam, 127; and renewal of temple service at time of Hezekiah, 140ff

Levitical priesthood, Christ brought an end to, 250

Leviticus 15, and definition of erev, 49-50

Leviticus 23:11, refers to weekly Sabbath, not Nisan 16, 36

Life, meaning of for Christians, 11

Lintel, that held the veil of the temple, account of its breaking in two at Jesus’ death, 378ff

Logistics, of Exodus; see Rose Parade

Lord’s Day, not Sunday, 44; see also Sabbath

Lord’s Supper, see The Lord’s Supper

Lost ten tribes of Israel, 282

Louoo, Greek verb meaning, “to wash” “to bathe” used in reference to the cleansing of baptism, 319-320; see also Baptism; Conversion; Footwashing; Part; Washed

Love of Christ, abide in by keeping His commandments, 222; and having part with Him, 316-319; for all mankind, 325ff; see also Footwashing; Humility

Love, of God the Father for us through Christ, 10-12; is keeping His commandments, 321; revealed through Jesus Christ, 344- 345; see also Obedience; Commandments; Lawlessness

Love of the Father, its relationship to faith, justification, and law, 250-251; as revealed in the body of Jesus Christ, 324; expounded, 325ff; given first to His Church and eventually to all peoples, 325f; revealed in the creation of man in His image, 327; to remain in must keep His commandments, 351; see also Obedience

Lot, see Footwashing; Kleeros; Meros; Part

Luke 22:1, Luke differentiates Feast of Unleavened Bread from the Passover day, 220

Luke 22:7, 235, 238; see also Domestic Passover; Ethuon

Luke 22:7, uses phrase “the day of the unleaveneds” in reference to Passover day, 230-231, uses Greek dei in reference to slaying of lambs, 231; see also Dei; Matthew 26:17; Mark 14:12; John 19:14


M. Pes. Viii. 2, 217

Magil, correctly translates bashal as boil in Deuteronomy 12:7, 169

Maledictory oath, definition of, 270; example of found in Jeremiah 34:8-11, 270; and ratification, 278-279; and Abramic Covenant, 357-358; see also Covenantal law; Zedekiah; Unilateral covenant

Maledictory pledge, same as Maledictory Oath, 270

Manasseh, king of Judah 694-640 BC; the most wicked of her history, 149; debaucheries of, 149-150; set stage for Passover reforms of Josiah, 149; pagan altars of, 152; see also Fire worship

Manasseh, renegade priest at time of Ezra/Nehemiah, 180-183; son of Joiada, the son of Eliashib the high priest, 180; son-in-law to Sanballat, 180; see also Ezra

Manna, appeared for first time on a Sunday, 41, 43; sent for forty years, eaten in tents, 42, 62

Mark 1:35, cannot be used to show that morning equates to night, 80-81

Mark 14:1, clarifies the distinction between Passover day and Feast of Unleavened Bread, 221

Mark 14:12, mistranslation of implies that Passover lambs were killed on Nisan 15, 227ff; literal translation of Greek Tee de protee loon azumoon, 227ff; meaning of Greek verb ethuon, “They were killing” 238; proves Jesus last meal was Nisan 14 Passover, 238ff; see also Ethuon; Matthew 26:17; Luke 22:7; John 19:14

Mark 15:42, refers to preparation day for the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, 373; see also High Day

Martin, Dr. Ernest, explains significance of splitting of temple veil, 379ff; see also Edersheim

Masoretic Text, Tanakh adds traditional interpretations to Hebrew words, 4; see also Kaplan

Mary, mother of Jesus, human nature of Jesus received from, 337; worship of is idolatry, 390; see also Diana; flesh of Jesus; Gennoomenon; Idolatry

Mass, counterfeit of NT Passover, 246f, 256; celebrated by worldly Christianity in place of Passover, 246, 259, 390; administration of, 246; see also Bacchiocchi; Communion; Eucharist

Matthew 26:17, literal translation of Greek Tee de protee toon azumoon, 227ff; mistranslation of implies that Passover lambs were killed on Nisan 15, 227ff; see also Mark 14:12; Luke 22:7; John 19:14

Matzot, also spelled mazzot, a transliteration of Hebrew for unleavened bread, 25, 35; see also Unleavened Bread

Meal Offering, 104

Mediator, of New Covenant is Christ, 302-303; see also Confession of sin

Memorial, of the Passover, 100f

Memorial, of the Exodus, 98 -99, 100; see also Night to be much remembered

Meros, Greek noun meaning “a part”, “a share” of Christ’s blessings, including eternal life, 316-317; used in reference to having a part with Jesus Christ, 316-319; does not refer exclusively to apostles, 317ff; and lake of fire, 318; also translated “portion” 317; see also Kleeros; Part; Simon Magus

Midday, translated from Hebrew noun cohorayim, definition of, 49

Middle watch, see Judges 7:19; Second watch

Middoth, Mishnic tractate relating measurements of temple, 216

Midnight, Egyptian firstborn slain at, 70ff; does not begin morning, 73; neither Moses nor the children of Israel left their houses shortly after, 72-75; translated from lailah, 77; as used in Exodus 12, 72-75; as related to Exodus and pillar of fire, 91ff; see also Boqer; Exodus; Lailah

Milcom, god of Ammon, worshiped by Solomon, 126; high places of finally destroyed by Josiah, 153; see also Ashtoreth; Chemosh; Molech

Migil, linear translation, wrongly translates ben ha arbayim “towards evening” 52; see also Rashi

Millennium, 1000-year reign of Jesus Christ and resurrected saints on earth, typified by aspects of Solomon’s reign, 126; see also Solomon

Miphkad Altar, located east of temple, on Mount of Olives, 374; Jesus crucified near, 374; all sin offerings burnt at, 375; ashes of all sacrifices poured into, 374; see also Atonement; Red heifer.

Mishnah, also called the Mishna; and obvious changes in the original meaning of Exodus 12:6, 119; modified original meaning of Passover ordinances to support temple sacrifice, 119-120; codified change in meaning of Passover from “passing over” to “deliverance from Egypt,” 212; codified change in length of Passover and Feast of Unleavened Bread, 212; perpetuated Jewish interpretation of Deuteronomy 16:3 as referring to sacrifice of Passover lamb, 212; details of temple sacrifice of Passover lambs, 213-216; retained original Passover ordinances only in roasting of lambs 216; description of searching for leaven on evening of Nisan 13, 229- 230; see also Pes.; Pesahim

Misinterpretation, of Passover and Exodus, 86, 176; see also Deuteronomy 16; Grabbe; Kaplan; Kuhn; Mark 1:35; Mark 14:12; Matthew 26:17; Luke 22:1; Luke 22:7; Mishnah; Rabbis

Mistranslation, of Mark 1:35, 80-81; of Numbers 28:16, 110; of Hebrew bashal as “roast” in Deuteronomy 16:7, JPSA and KJV, 169-170, 173; of Hebrew Elohim as “angels” in Psa. 8:5, 329; see also Deuteronomy 16:7; John 13:2; Luke 22:7; Mark 1:35; Mark 14:12; Matthew 26:17; Numbers 28:16

Mixed marriages, a threat to Jewish settlement at time of Ezra, 179-180

Mn, a Hebrew preposition meaning “from” or “away from”, 35

Mn erew, a Hebrew prepositional phrase meaning “from sunset,” 35; see also Ad erev; Ba erev

Moffat, translates erev “sunset” and “evening,” 52; translates ben ha arbayim “between sunset and dark” and “evening” 52

Molech, god of Ammon, 126, 152; worshipped by Solomon, 126-127; worshipped by Ahaz of Judah, 139; a fire god, 139

Month, see Full moon; Hebrew Calendar; New moon

Mordecai, second in command of Persian Empire at time of Ezra, 178; see also Esther; Haman

Morning, sunrise, not any part of night, translated from the Hebrew boqer, 72; improperly redefined by Kuhn and Grabbe as period of time from midnight to sunrise, 76; see also Habboqer; Lailah; Ruth

Morning sacrifice, only sacrifice commanded for Passover at tabernacle, 110; see also Daily burntoffering

Morning watch, see Exodus 14:24; Habboqer; I Samuel 11:11; Third watch

Morrow after the Sabbath, an expression referring to Sunday, first day in count to Pentecost, 38; begins at sunset, 38

Moses, did not leave house to visit Pharaoh after midnight, 74; his condemnation of future Israel, 157; his final sermon to Israel in book of Deuteronomy, 174; his editing of Scripture, 185; see also Book of the Covenant; Chronology; Exodus; Passover; Priesthood; Sacrificial system; Tabernacle; Unleavened Bread

Moshab, Hebrew noun for “dwelling places, houses” but not tents, 64; see also Bayith; Ohel; Soo-kaw

Mount Cassius, mythical home of Baal, 131

Mount Gerizim, site of Jewish/ Samaritan temple in time of Ezra, 181-184; the Mount of Blessing for the children of Israel at time of Moses, 181

Mount of Olives, location of crucifixion of Jesus, 374, 382; see also Miphkad Altar


National Blessings, not promised under New Covenant, 299ff; see also Political Blessings

Nature of God, in relationship to sacrifice of Jesus Christ and NT Passover, 324ff; see also Elohim; Godhead

Nehemiah, and his conflict with renegade priests, 180; and his banishing of Manasseh the priest, 180; book of, 183

Nephesh, the physical life of man, commonly translated “soul”, 330; see also Ruach; Soul; Spirit of man

New American Standard Bible, translates erev “evening” 53; translates ben ha arbayim “as twilight,” 52-53

New English Bible, translates erev “sunset” and “evening” 52

New Israel, comprised of those who enter New Covenant, 378

New moon, an expression referring to the first visible crescent of the moon, not the conjunction; utilized by Fox in his translations of Leviticus 23:4-6 and Numbers 9:2-5 to mean “month” 25; instructions for sacrifices on given in Numbers 28:11-15, 109; misobservance of, 135

Newness of life, entered through repentance and baptism, 301, 312; definition of, 301; living and walking in, 303, 320-321; see also Baptism; Covenant, New

Night, Israel remained in houses entire night of Nisan 14, 71; translated from Hebrew noun lailah, 72; defined by Scripture as the darkness of night, no part of is defined as morning, 73-75; see also Boqer; Morning; Moses

Night of watching, Nisan 15 called, 95; see also Night to be much remembered

Night to be much remembered, not a night of watching for the destroyer, 94ff; night portion of Nisan 15, 165; special observance of Nisan 15, 171; ordinances regulating, 161 -163, 167, 170-171; offerings sacrificed on, 187; see also Deuteronomy 16:1- 8; Exodus

Nimbus, the halo or sun disk which enclosed images of Baal, 131; see also Sun worship

Nimrod, Baal of the Canaanites, 130; founder of Babylonian religious system, 130; both husband and son of Semiramis, 130; Osiris of the Egyptians, 130; Belus of the Greeks, 130; Bel of the Chaldeans, 130; see also Tammuz

Nineveh, see Tiglath Pileser III

Nisan 14, covenant instituted on with Abraham, 1; Passover can only be observed on 14th, 21ff; end of begins Feast of Unleavened Bread, 36-37; comparison of 14th and 15th Passover, 115; unlucky day to the worshippers of Baal, 132; Passover of Hezekiah first indication Passover lambs slain during day portion of, 142ff; Josiah’s Passover slain on, 153; II Chron. 34:14 indicates slaying of Passover lambs on day portion of, 153ff; observance of changed by kings of Judah, not by God, 155- 156; Ezra’s Passover on, 190-191; promises to Abraham given on, 299; reinterpretation of time for killing of lambs, 210-211; end of recognition of, 210- 211; evident Jesus ate last Passover on according to Mark 14:12 and Luke 22:7, 237-238; see also Riskin; Unlucky days

Nisan 15, Passover instituted after Exile, 1; traditional day of Jewish Passover, 1- 2, 172; not same as Nisan 14 Passover, 21ff; first day of Unleavened Bread, 37; false teaching that Passover begins on, 53-54; 15th Passover one of most venerated teachings of Judaism, 60; proponents of 15th Passover wrongly collapse twenty-four hours into twelve, 70; established to commemorate Exodus, 89; Passover ordinances grossly misinterpreted to support, 115; a day of good fortune to worshippers of Baal, 132-133; began Sappatu of the Babylonians, 133; observed as pagan high day, 134-135; day of communion meal to Baal, iv; Passover of Josiah continued into, 153-154; and misinterpretation of Deuteronomy 16, 159ff; Passover of a dangerous counterfeit, 203; originated in Passover observances of Hezekiah, Josiah and Ezra, 186ff; Egyptian sunrise to sunrise day contributed to Nisan 15 Passover practice, 208; Passover of not supported by Luke 2:41, 221; Abramic Covenant ratified on, 299; proponents of fail to comprehend the full meaning of Christ’s sacrifice, 372; see also Jeroboam; Night to be much remembered; Phallus worship; Sappatu; Seder meal

Nisan 16, not day of Wave sheaf, except when High Sabbath falls on weekly Sabbath, 38

Nisan 21, last day of Unleavened Bread, 89; seventh day of Feast of Unleavened Bread, 89; day of crossing the Red Sea, 89; an unlucky day in the Babylonian religion, 132- 133; see also Unleavened Bread; Unlucky days

Noah, his generation destroyed for disobedience, 197ff

Ntothhayom, Hebrew for “afternoon” 50; see also Cohorayim

Numbers 9, instructions for alternate Passover, 20-21; account of the Passover of the second year, 106ff; see also Harmony

Numbers 28:16, not correct in new JPS translation, 110; correctly translated by Rabbi Kaplan, 110

Numbers 28:17-24, instructions for sacrifices for Feast of Unleavened Bread, 167


Obedience to God, and physical blessings under Old Covenant, 299-300; and spiritual blessings under New Covenant, 301; essential for justification, Rom. 2:13,350-351; basis of both Old and New Covenants, 376ff; see also Blood of Christ; Covenant; Dei; Justification; Love

Offerings, dedication of altar of burnt offerings, 105ff; offerings from the herd, 167; see also Deuteronomy 16:4; Priesthood; Sacrifices

Ohel Hebrew noun translated tent, 62; see also Bayith; Rouses; Rameses

Olah, Hebrew word translated “burnt-offering” 110; see also Qarob; Zebah

Old Testament, authority and application of not done away in Christ, 248-249

Offerings, summarized in Exodus 29 and 30; detailed in Leviticus 1 to 7, 104

Opheiloo, Greek verb translated “was obligated” in Hebrews 2:17, 339-340

Ordinances, governing the keeping of the Passover, 20ff, 26, 102; the nine of Passover and Rashi, 28; comparison of domestic Passover with tabernacle/ temple, 102ff; comparison of Old Covenant with New Covenant, 264-265; see also Exodus 12:47-48

Osakis, Greek word translated, “as often as” in I Cor. 11:25-26, 257

Osakis an esthieete, Greek phrase translated “as often as you may eat” I Cor. 11:26, 257-258; see also An; As often as

Osakis an pineete, Greek phrase translated “as often as you may drink” I Cor. 11:25, 257-258; see also An; As often as

Osiris, Egyptian name for Nimrod, 130; see also Babylonian religious system; Isis

Osos, Greek root of osakis, 257

Ouk, Greek negative adverb used by Paul to denote the impossibility of eating the Lord’s Supper, I Cor. 11:20, 253, 393; as used in relationship to Footwashing, 317; as used in relationship to grace, 393; see also Kleeros; Meros; Part

Outline, of Passover events, 20; of events at miracle of the quail, 48; of Passover elements, 55


Parah 4:2, 374

Parapleesioos, Greek word meaning. “in like manner” used in Hebrews 2:14 in reference to Jesus’ humanity, 339-340

Part, with Christ, in relationship to footwashing service, 315-316, what it means to have a part with Christ, 316-319; requires complete and total obedience, 315; not limited to ministry, 317; see also Apostles; Baptism; Footwashing; Humility; Kleeros; Meros; Simon Magus

Pascha, Josephus’ term for Passover, 17, 29, 211-212

Passover, Christians commanded to keep once a year, 1; Passover, foundation of, Old and New Covenants, 1, 299-300; subject of 14/15 controversy, 1, 70, 220; lambs sacrificed on 14th, 1, 56- 57; two-day observance of, 2; of Israel in Egypt, 8; a yearly observance, 7; keeping of obligatory, 9- 10; first step in God’s plan of salvation, 9; meaning of term, 17ff, 59, 88; redemption of firstborn, 16; entire eight-day festival season called Passover, 18; observed beginning at ben ha arbayim of Nisan 14th, 20, 24-27; meaning of expression “on the l4th” not same as “on the 14th at even,” 53 -54; Israelites assembled at their own houses to kill and eat the lambs, 58; term used for lamb, 59; Passover and Exodus did not occur on same night, 72; not a memorial of the Exodus, 88; of the second year, 106-108; when combined with Unleavened Bread, 120; Christ as Lamb of God, 6, 56; meaning of name, 17ff; meaning of keeping in OT; 19ff; ordinances governing, 20- 21, 26, 55ff, 101ff, 106, 113, 153ff; as observed in time of Josephus, 29-30; basic elements of, 55ff; memorial of the Lord’s passing over, 88; establishment of ordinances of, 101ff; of second year, 106; ordinances not changed by God, 106ff; no sacrifices required at tabernacle for, 109ff; changes in OT observance of, 115ff, 138ff; comparison of 14th and 15th, 115; originally separate from Feast of Unleavened Bread, 116ff; coalesced with Feast of Unleavened Bread at time of Josiah, 155ff; templecentered Passover of Hezekiah, 141-148; used interchangeably with Feast of Unleavened Bread, II Chronicles 30:1-2, 13, 143; temple-centered Passover of Josiah, 153ff; and misinterpretation of Deuteronomy 16, 159ff; commands in Exodus and Numbers compared with those in Deuteronomy 16, 160-163; not a memorial of the Exodus, 164, 166; not same as “Passover offering” 169-17 1; observance of Passover in Judea ceased with destruction of temple in 70 AD, 205; sacrificed at temple in Ezra’s time, 186; change in meaning of, 210-211; could not be kept by Israelites in exile, 202-203; and renaming of Feast of Unleavened Bread, 210- 213; kept by Jesus at beginning of Nisan 14, 226, 237ff; Jesus’ last Passover, 237ff; order of service for NT observance, 237ff; in OT and NT, observed once a year on Nisan 14, 247ff; misapplication of “as often as,” I Cor. 11:25-26, 256ff; OT ordinances nullified by sacrifice of Christ, 254- 255; NT service observed at same time Jesus instituted it, 255; meaning of taking the Passover worthily, 245-246; instituted as a substitute sacrifice for the firstborn of Israel, 286; sacrifice at temple not possible in year Christ died, 380ff; its prime importance among sacrifices, 375-376; for Christians, a personal renewal of New Covenant, 390-392; see also Covenant, New; Dei; Deuteronomy 16; Discrepancies; Elements; Hezekiah; Josiah; Kaplan; Mishnah; Nisan 14; Nisan 15; Osakis; Osakis an esthieete; Osakis anpineete

Passover meal, of OT, not part of NT Passover service, 254-255; see also The Lord’s Supper; Seder meal

Passover offerings, refers to burnt, peace and thank offerings, not the Passover lamb, 154ff; of Josiah, 154; included offerings from the herd, 167; offered at erev, or sunset, 168; eaten with unleavened bread for seven days, Deuteronomy 16:3, 168; terminology not in use in Moses’ time, 171; use of term indicates renaming of Feast of Unleavened Bread, 172; why Ezra used the term, 174; called “peace-offering” in Hezekiah’s time, II Chron. 30:22, 186; term used in Ezra’s account of Passover of Josiah, II Chron. 35:7-9, 186-187; misinterpretation of codified in Mishnah, 212-213; Rabbinical writings confirm does not refer to Passover lamb, 216; see also Deuteronomy 16; Ezra; II Chronicles 35; Jewi sh tradi t ions; Josiah; Lambs; Peace offering; Temple

Patriarchal system, end of, 103

Peace-offerings, no mention of for Passover at tabernacle, 110; to be offered at the tabernacle, 113; temple -centered Passover of Hezekiah slain according to instructions for, 145; Passover offering of Josiah, 154ff; description of, 167-168; the offerings of Deuteronomy 16, 170; no requirement to burn remains in morning, 170; term used in Ezra’s account of Hezekiah’s Passover, II Chron. 30:22, 186; renamed “Passover offerings” in Ezra’s account of Josiah’s Passover, II Chron. 35:7-9, 186; offic i a lly codified as “Passover offerings” in Mishnah, 212-213; according to Mishnah cannot possibly be Passover lamb, 216; see also Baptism; Baqar; Blood of Christ; Bovine; Herd; Hezekiah; Sin

Pentecost, sacrifices required for, 109; Old Covenant ratified the day after, 299

Persian Empire, see also Darius Hystaspes; Data; Elephantine; Ezra

Pes. 5:10, 120

Pes. 7:12, 120

Pes. 53, 177

Pes. 64b, 217; see also M. Pes

Pesach, 182; see also Passover

Pesahim 5:1, 214

Pesahim 9:5, 213

Pesahim 10:9, 76

Peter, and account of footwashing at Jesus’ last Passover, 315-3 16; see also Competition; Footwashing Phallus, worship of in Baalism, 131, 136; see also Nisan 15; Pillars

Pharisees, traditions of strongly condemned by Jesus, 222; Jesus’ education not Pharisaic, 223- 224; see also Wave Sheaf

Philippians 2:5-8, use of Greek huparchoon , reference to Christ’s preexistence as God, 336-337; see also Elohim

Philo, testifies of a domestic Passover at time of Christ, 112; records domestic observance of Passover in the first century AD, 100, 209- 210; see also Josephus

Philosophy, see Adam and Eve; Free moral agency; Human nature; Intellect; Language; Life; Spirit of man

Pillar of fire, appeared only after departing Rameses, 91

Pillars, symbols of erect penis of Nimrod, phallic symbols of Baal, 131; broken in pieces by Josiah, 152-153; see Phallus

Plagues, of flies, murrain, hail, 63, of locusts, death of firstborn, 64

Plan of God, 7; to grant Christians full sonship as spirit beings in Family of God at first resurrection, 330ff; to reconcile us to the Father and perfect us, 354; a mystery even to the angels and prophets, 386- 387; New Testament Passover the foundation of, 392; see also Born again; Calling; Purpose of God; Salvation

Political blessings, promised under Old Covenant, 192; not promised under New Covenant, 299ff

Pontiff, anyone who sits in a seat elevated above his brethren is not a true servant of Jesus Christ, 322

Prayer, direct access to the Father granted through Jesus Christ, 351-352; see also Blood of Christ; Covenant, New

Pre-existence of Jesus, 322; see also Godhead; Huparchoon; Philippians 2:5-8

Preparation day, for Feast of Unleavened Bread was day of Jews’ Passover, 233ff; 310, 373; see also High Day; Matthew 26:17; Mark 14:12; Luke 22:7; John 19:14

Priesthood, Aaronic, replaced patriarchal system, 103; offerings required by God, 103-104; did not have sole right to sacrifice lambs for Pascha service, 112-113; commanded to dash blood and burn fat of peace-offerings, not Passover lambs, 112-114; authority of in relation to king, 141-143: contrasted by Paul with priesthood of Christ, 302ff; sacrificial worship at time of Christ, 374; see also Blood of Passover lamb; Ceremonial law; Hierarchy; Levitical; Sacrificial system

Prophesy, in I Kings 13 concerning altar at Bethel, 129; fulfilled by Josiah, 150-153, twenty-eight prophecies fulfilled on crucifixion day, 364-371

Protestantism, replaced NT Passover with the Lord’s Supper, 3,247; see also Catholicism; Jewish tradition; Judaism

Prov. 7:9, defines the “early part of night” as twilight, 49

Psalm 8:1-5, incorrect translation of Elohim as “angels” LXX, JPSA, and KJV, 329; correct translation of Elohim as “God” in NASB, 329

Purpose of God, for mankind, 329ff; see also Born again; Plan of God


Qarob, general term for offering, 110; as used in Num. 28:2, 110; see also Tabernacle

Quail, sent by God at ben ha arbayim immediately after sunset, 47-48; Israel began eating at ben ha arbayim, 47-48, 51-52; absolutely proves that ben ha arbayim is immediately after sunset, 166; see also Ben ha arbayim

Queen of heaven, 135; represented by Asherim and cake offerings, 135; see also Mary; Semiramis

Questions, concerning Passover history and observance, 3-4


Rabbi, Edersheim, 27f, 37- 38; Kaplan, 28, 41, 48-49; Rashi, 27, 53, 76; Rashi, 27-28; Kaplan, 28, 48-49, 110; Edersheim, 28, 37-38, 177, 215, 381ff; Riskin, 122-123; Isaiah, 169; Sharfman, 169; Eliezer, 215; Judah, 215; Akiba, 216; Gamliel, 216; Zadok, 216; Jose, 216; see also Conspiracy; Deuteronomy 16; Grabbe; Jewish tradition; Kuhn; Mishnah

Rabbinic, teaching concerning ben ha arbayim, 27- 32, concerning seventh day of Unleavened Bread, 171-172

Rabbis, explanation of ben ha arbayim, 40; rethinking 14th/15th Passover problem, 122-123; reinterpretation of Exodus 12, 214; see also Bashal; Deuteronomy 16:8; Edersheim; Isaiah; Kaplan; Rashi; Riskin

Rameses, Israel did not assemble at for Passover as Josephus claims, 60, 90; nor as Kuhn and Grabbe claim, 61-62; a treasure city of ancient Egypt, not a region of Egypt, 63; Exodus began from, 90, 167

Rap music, and Baal worship, 134

Ras Shamra texts, Canaanite literature discovered at Ugarit, 131; see also Baal; Nimrod; Semiramis Nimrod; Semiramis

Rashi, rabbinic mystic and Kabbalistic scholar, 27; taught that ben ha arbayim is a period of time from 1 PM to sunset, 27- 28; a period of time meaning “towards evening,” 53; espoused midnight Exodus theory based on Pharaoh’s command to Moses, 76; see also Ibn Ezra; Jewish tradition; Migil

Ratification, of covenants by maledictory oath, 278; Abraham did not participate in ratification of covenant, 280; by God to Christ, 289; of New Covenant on Passover day, 299; of Old Covenant on day after Pentecost, 274, 299; process explained, 304- 313; and correct translation of Hebrews 9:16-17; of Old Covenant, 306; of New through death of Jesus Christ, 347; see also Bebaia; Epi nikrois; Maledictory oath; Pentecost

Received Text, of New Testament Greek, 5-6; see also Stephens Text; Translation

Reconciliation to the Father, instituted at Jesus’ last Passover, 9-10; through blood of Christ, 303; through indwelling of Holy Spirit, 312; through sacrifice of Jesus Christ, 344ff; see also Redemption; Salvation

Red heifer, as exception to temple sacrifices, 375; sacrifice of fulfilled by Jesus Christ, 375; as symbol of Christ, 375; see also Domestic Passover

Red Sea, meaning of crossing for us today, 99-100; see also Exodus; Nisan 21; Unleavened Bread

Redemption, of firstborn at Passover, 17; of all Israel at Exodus, 85; from sin through blood of Jesus Christ, 300, through Christ the ratifier and mediator of the New Covenant, 309; Jesus gave His body to redeem all mankind, 344, 372ff; meaning of, 349; and forgiveness of sin through Christ’s blood, 349-350; see also Blood of Christ; Covenant, New; Obedience to God; Repentance

Rehoboam, first king of Judah after Israel divided, ruled from 970-954 BC, 127, 199

Reinterpretation, of Exodus 12:6, to support three courses for temple sacrifice of Passover lambs, 214; see also Conspiracy; Mishnah; Rabbis

Religion, politics of, 13-14; see also Hierarchy

Remembrance, translated from Greek phrase tees anamnesis, referring to the remembrance of an annual event, cannot possibly mean daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly or semiannual services; used in I Cor. 11:24-25, Luke 22:19, Heb. 10:3, 259- 260

Renewal, of New Covenant, 8

Repentance, necessity of for salvation, 8-9; 324; a calling of God the Father and Jesus Christ, 300f; definition of, 300f; and our part with Christ, 316ff; of human nature and personal acts of sin, 325f; and the Blood of Christ, 349; as prerequisite for baptism and receiving of Holy Spirit, 349; as a continual process, 351; from dead works, 351; see also Baptism; Begettal; Blood of Christ; Confession; Holy Spirit; Human nature; Law of sin and death; Part; Salvation

Resurrection, of spiritual seed of Abraham at Christ’s return, 267, 317; to immortality and glory, 292, 313; of Jesus to immortality, 292, 296; His appearance as God, 292- 293; of the firsthorn, 293, 386; of saints into the Divinity of God, 293; to physical life of believers, after resurrection of Jesus Christ, 378ff; see also Born again; Darkness; Earthquake; Veil

Revised Standard Version, transla tes ba erev “evening” 52; translates ben ha arbayim “evening” and “twilight” 52

Reward; of Christ for His saints is having a part with Him, 316; see also Part

Righteousness, imputed to Abraham through faith in God, 268-269; see also Abraham; Faith

Riskin, Rabbi Shlomo, and Passover controversy, 122- 123; see also Rabbis

Roast, in Exodus 12:8, a command for sacrifice of Passover lambs, 19; in Exodus 12:6-10, a command for sacrifice of Passover lambs, 66; an incorrect translation of bashal by JPSA, 169; see also Bashal; Tsacah

Rock and Roll, resemblance of to ancient rites of Baal, 134; see also Rap music

Rose Parade, see Exodus; Logistics

Rosen, Ceil and Moishe, authors of book Christ in the Passover, falsely compare Jesus’ Passover observance with Seder, 242

Ruach, the spiritual essence within human beings, 329; see also Nephesh; Soul; Spirit of man

Ruth, book of, illustrates Scriptural definition of morning, 77-79; see also Boqer; Grabbe; Kuhn


Sabbath, annual, instructions for sacrifices on given in Numbers 28 and 29, 109

Sabbath, the seventh day, seventh day of week, reckoned from sunset to sunset, 36; necessity of keeping, 42ff; and lessons of manna, 42ff; necessity of keeping, 44-46; the fifteenth day of the second month, 42; holy to God, 44 -45; a day of rest for all mankind, 45; along with ba erev the key to understanding ben ha arbayim, 46; sacrifices required for in OT, 109; instructions for sacrifices on given in Number 28:9-10, 109; an unlucky day in Babylonian religion, 132-133; not abolished in Christ, 250; see also Ba Erev; High day; John 19:31; Morrow after the Sabbath; Sunday

Sacrificial system, at temple, ceased in 70 AD, 2; Passover lamb only one of nine Passover ordinances, 20-22; rules for falsely applied to Passover, 101- 102; ordinances for tabernacle found in Exodus 29 and 30, 103; word inserted after Passover in Numbers 28:16; listed in Exodus 29 and 30, 103; listed in Numbers 28 and 29, 110- 111; single word inserted after “Passover” in new JPS translation of Numbers 28:16, 110-111; in Deuteronomy 16 for Feast of Unleavened Bread, 112- 113; command to dash blood and burn fat of did not include Passover, 113- 114; of Josiah’s Passover, did not conform to ordinances in Exodus 12, 153ff; at Jewish temple in Elephantine, 190-191; number of lambs for temple Passover as recorded by Josephus, 216ff; details of temple Passover service, 216ff; maximum possible number of Passover lambs slain at the temple, 218f; authority of ended with. Christ’s death, 250; could only cleanse the flesh, 302; 310-312; a function of the Old Covenant, 301-303; did not offer spiritual perfection, 301-303; David understood function of, 225; Book of Hebrews expounds meaning of, 301ff; and blood of Christ, 348; purified the flesh, not the spirit, 348; all fulfilled in Christ’s one sacrifice, 372ff; see also Animal sacrifices; Blood of Christ; Ceremonial law; Elephantine; Hebrew Christians; Jesus Christ; Lamb; Nisan 15; Pharisees; Sacrifices; Shacht; Wave sheaf

Salvation, proper observance of Christian Passover essential to, 7-10; repentance essential to, 8- 9, 324; baptism essential to, 10ff; foot-washing mandatory for, 9, 242; and New Covenant, 302; believing essential to, 324, 327; Christ came to reveal full salvation, 300; only through Jesus Christ, 327; sets us free from penalty of death, 340; see also Eternal life; Faith; Human nature

Samaritans, define ben ha arbayim as sunset to darkness, 31; required everything to be eaten by midnight, 76; conspiracy of at time of Ezra, 174; Nisan 14 Passover of, 181-182; not descendants of heathen colonists but a Jewish sect, 182; see also Karaites

Samaritan temple, events leading to building of, 180ff; its impact on and threat to Jewish People, 181-184; see also Elephantine; Ezra; Manasseh

Samuel, judge of Israel, 142; his editing of OT, 185; see also Editing; Ezra; Moses

Sanballat, official governor of Samaria, 180; daughter of married to Manasseh, 180; and temple on Mount Gerizim, 181; conspiracy with Jewish colonists of Elephantine, 186ff; see also Ezra; Nehemiah; Manasseh

Sanctification, from sin through Jesus Christ, 303; meaning of, 350; only through Jesus Christ, 350ff; see also Blood of Christ; Jesus Christ; Redemption; Repentance

Sanctuary, true one in heaven above, 302

Sapattu, Babylonian/ Assyrian festival of Nisan 15, 133

Sargon I, founder and king of Akkadian Empire 1633- 1577 BC; his influence on observance of Passover, 128; see also Ur

Satan, the god of this world, 336; influences human nature, 336; his devices overcome through the Blood of Christ, 352-353

Schaeffer, Claude, French discoverer of Ras Shamra Texts, 131

Schauss, Hayyim, 121

Schiaparelli, astronomer, supports true definition of ben ha arbayim, 49

Schocken Bible, see Fox

Scholars, rejection of Scriptural truth by some in favor of Jewish traditions, 28, 32-33; affirmation of Scriptural definition of ben ha arbayim, 49-51; and twelve major differences in commands of Deuteronomy 16, 166ff; ignore Jesus’ own statements about His last Passover, 240; see a l so Bac c h i o c c hi ; Grabbe; Kuhn

Scholarship, pseudoscholarship of Kuhn and Grabbe, 16; Kuhn and Grabbe’s lack of, 27ff; general lack of in Grabbe’s writings, 81; see also Ben ha arbayim; Holy Spirit; Intellect; Scholars

Scripture, spiritual keys to understanding, 12-16; see also Word of God

Second Evening, a rabbinic term for the “second sunset” of ben ha arbayim, 29; see also Gesenius; First evening

Second Passover, domestic Passover did not cease after, was not moved to Tabernacle in the Wilderness, 101ff; of Hezekiah, 141ff

Second watch, from 10PM to 2AM, 80; see also Middle watch

Seder meal, Jewish Passover meal of Nisan 15; Jews acknowledge Passover and Exodus two separate feasts, 116; replaced 14/15 Passover after destruction of temple, 189, 191; reason it replaced Nisan 14 Passover, 203,205; not eaten by Jesus at last Passover, 221-223, falsely compared with Jesus’ observance of the Passover, 242; instituted well after destruction of temple in 70 AD, 242; see also Babylonian captivity; Nisan 15; Rosen, Ceil and Moishe

Seethe, see Bashal; Deuteronomy 16:7; Sodden

Self-mutilation, in Baal worship, 134

Selfsame day, Nisan 15, Exodus planned by God many centuries before, 94- 95, 273-274; entered Promised Land on Nisan 15, 276; see also Covenant, Abramic

Semiramis, Astarte of the Canaanites, 130; Isis of the Egyptians, co-founder of Babylonian religious system, 130ff; wife of Nimrod, mother of Tammuz, 130; queen of heaven, 130; Diana of the Ephesians, 130; worshiped as the virgin mother of the gods, 130; and feast of Ishtar or Easter, 143; see also Anat; Arhirat; Asherah; Asherim; Asheroth; Astarte; Athirat; Diana; Easter; Isis; Ishtar; Mary

Seventh-Day Adventists, observe Lord’s Supper quarterly, 248; see also As often as; Bacchiocchi; Lord’s Supper

Sexual rites of Baal, 131- 132; see also Phallus; Nimrod

Shacht, Hebrew verb meaning “to slaughter,” “to sacrifice,” “to kill,” used in Exodus 12:6, 22; see also Akal; Asah

Shadows, of the evening defined as twilight, not afternoon, 49-50; see also Jeremiah 6:4

Sharfman, Rabbi Benjamin, mistranslates bashal in Deuteronomy 12:7 as roast, 169; see also Bashal; Isaiah

Simon Magus, pagan sorcerer who attempted to buy apostleship, 317; see also kleeros; ouk; meros; Part

Simon the Just, 206

Sin, a form of slavery, 18; salvation from foreshadowed by OT Passover and Old Covenant, 299ff; spiritual forgiveness of sins never offered under Old Covenant, 302; washed away at baptism, 319ff; defined as transgression God’s of law, I John 3:4, 342; earns the death penalty, Romans 6:23, 340; condemned by Jesus Christ in the flesh, 341ff; remitted only through Christ’s blood, 347ff; see also Baptism; Footwashing; Human nature; Law of sin and death; Jesus Christ; Repentance; Salvation

Sin-offering, Exodus 29:14, 103; fulfilled by Jesus Christ, 372-373; see also Miphkad Altar; Sacrificial system

Slavery, of Israel a type of sin, 16; Jewish slaves held by Judah, 270-271; see also Maledictory oath

Sodden, meaning boiled, 169; see also Bashal; Deuteronomy 16:7

Sodomites, temple prostitutes, houses of broken down by Hilkiah, 152

Solomon, third and last king of united Israel 1010-971 BC, 126-127; peace and wealth of his kingdom symbolic of Millennium, 126; his apostasy, 126- 127; see also Baal; Covenant, Old; Ecumenical movement

Soo-kaw, Hebrew noun for tent or temporary dwelling, 62; see also Bayith; Ohel

Soul, the physical life of man, returns to the dust at death; translated from Hebrew word, “nephesh”; see also Ruach; Spirit of man

Spirit of God, leads us into Truth, 12; see also Holy Spirit; Jesus Christ; Trinity

Spirit of man, 12; created by God in every human being, 329ff; essence or power of thought, intellect and other God-like characteristics of man, 329-330; not same as soul, 330; incomplete without the Holy Spirit, 330-331; see also Human nature

Spirit of truth, 4; works hand in hand with Word of truth, 12

Spiritual begettal, 313

Spiritual growth, a continuing process of new life in Christ, 348-349; possible only by God’s grace and through the blood of Christ, 349-350; see also Blood of Christ; Grace of God

Spiritual seed, of Abraham, 267; see also Jesus Christ

Spoiling of the Egyptians, did not begin until daylight portion of Nisan 14, 81-84; prophesied by God four hundred years before actual event, 271, 273

Square Chaldee Characters, of Ezra’s canonization, 183-184

Statutes, and ordinances of original and wilderness Passovers, 20

Stephens Text, of 1550, most accurate Greek New Testament, 5-6; see also Received Text; Translation

Strong’s, makes no distinction between “at even” “evening” or “between the two evenings,” 23-24

Succoth, 62, 92, 94

Sun worship, at Easter time, 390; see also, Easter; Idolatry

Sunday, day on which Wave sheaf harvested, 38; not the true Sabbath, 45

Sunset, translation of Hebrew term erev, 24, 35, 46- 47; falsely called “evening of night” by Rashi, 27-28; lasts 3-5 minutes, 37; see also Day; Fox

Supreme Court, see The Great Assembly

Symbols, Passover, 7-8

Synagogues, establishment by Ezra, 183


Ta azuma, Greek phrase meaning “the unleavened,” 228-229; see also Toon azumoon

Tabernacle, reared up on first day of first month of second year, 105; sacrifices required at, 108f; setting up and consecrating of, 104-106; commanded sacrifices of do not include Passover, 108-ff; no Passover offerings of any type commanded at, 110; see also Burnt-offering; Offerings; Ordinances; Peace-offering; Qarob; Priesthood; Sacrificial system

Tacitus, his mention of Passover participants, 217

Tammuz, Semitic name for son of Semiramis, 131; youthful lover of Ishtar, 131; a Mesopotamian deity, 131; comparable to Phoenician 11, 131, see also Nimrod; Semiramis

Tanakh, adds traditional interpretations to Hebrew words, 4; translates ben ha arbayim “as twilight” and “by evening,” 52; wrongly inserts word “sacrifice” after Passover in Numbers 28:16; see also Gaon, Saadia; Masoretic Text

Tee de protee toon azumoon, Greek phrase meaning “Now on the first of the unleaveneds,” 228; see also Matthew 26:17; Mark 14:12; Luke 22:7

Tees anamnesis, Greek phrase translated “the remembrance,” 259-260; see also As often as; Remembrance

Temple, destruction of, 70 AD, 1-2; Passover sacrifices at, 1-2; and traditional whole burnt offering, 29; destruction of in 70 AD ended temple sacrifice of Passover, 113; stripped by Ahaz of Judah and shut up, 140; fell into disuse, 140; cleansing of at time of Hezekiah, 140- 141; cleansing of at time of Josiah, 150ff; of Elephantine, Egypt, 190-191; measurements of in relation to maximum number of Passover sacrifices, 216ff; see also Sacrificial system; Solomon

Temple-centered Passover, Josephus’ account of, 29, 211-212; instituted some 800 years after first Passover, 29; Hezekiah’s Passover first record in Scripture of, 143; procedure for killing at time of Hezekiah, 146; did not nullify original commands for Passover, 147; instituted by command of kings Hezekiah and Josiah, 156, 176; misinterpretation of Deuteronomy 16 as key chapter to support, 159ff; observed in time of Ezra, Ezra 6:19-22, 177; institutionalized by Ezra, 190- 191; description of in Mishnah, 213-216; number of lambs sacrificed as calculated by Jeremias, 216-2 18; disrupted on day of Christ’s crucifixion, 380ff; see also Crucifixion; Ezra; Hezekiah; Josiah; Mi s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s; Mishnah; Peace-offering; Red heifer; Sacrificial system

Temptations, of Jesus Christ, 339ff; literal translation of Greek kath omoioteeta, Hebrews 4:15, 342- 343

Tent, translated from Hebrew noun ohel, 62; Israel not camped in for first Passover, 62-63

Tents, Passover sacrificed at tents during 40 years of wanderings in wilderness, 108; and Israel’s observation of Feast of Unleavened Bread, 171; see also Ohel

Testamental Law, not same as Covenantal Law, 304f; not in force until death of testator, 305; see also Covenant, New; Ratification

Thank-offering; Passoveroffering of Josiah, 154

The Great Assembly, of Ezra, 183ff; also known as the “Great Synagogue,” “the Supreme Court,” 183, 185; continued after death of Ezra to Alexander The Great, 206; see also Cano n i z a t i o n ; Ez r a ; Hananiah; Hellenism

The Lord’s Supper, replaced true Passover, 3; not what Jesus ate with disciples, 21- 22; a practice adopted in place of NT Passover, 237; condemned by Paul in I Cor. 11:20-22, 253-254; Passover wrongly called so by mainstream churches, 248; administration of in Protestant churches, 247- 248; wrongly promoted by Bacchiocchi, 261-263; celebration of cannot renew the New Covenant, 390; see also Bacchiocchi; Communion; Eucharist; Mass; Ouk; Passover meal

The Unleavened Bread, second ordinance of the Passover ceremony, 244- 245; represents the broken body of Jesus Christ, 244- 245; see also Footwashing; The wine

The wine, third ordinance of the Passover ceremony, 245-246; represents the New Covenant blood of Jesus Christ, 245f; see also Footwashing; The Unleavened Bread

Third watch, from 2 AM to 6 AM, 80; see also Middle watch

Thuo, the root of the Greek verb Ethuon, 238

Tiglath Pileser III, king of Nineveh 745-726 BC, and Babylon 731-726 BC; brought by God against wicked king Ahaz of Judah, 140

Timing of Christ’s death, Passover should not be observed at time of Christ’s death, 260-261; foreshadowed by sacrifices of Abraham in Genesis 15 and Genesis 22, 307-310; expounded, 357-358; not timed to occur during the temple sacrifice of Passover, 372ff, important factors in, 384-385

Toon azumoon, plural of ta azuma, Greek phrase meaning “the unleaveneds,” 228; see also Matthew 26:17

Towards evening, false translation of ben ha arbayim by Migil and Rashi, 52

Tradition, rabbinical definition of ben ha arbayim fully examined, 27-32; of rabbinical teaching of Passover at Rameses, 60; of rabbinical Judaism used by Kuhn and Grabbe, 75; of rabbinical Judaism and 15th Passover, 87; of Jews concerning Ezra, 183; of Catholicism and Orthodox churches, 251-252; see also Tanakh

Traditions of the Jews, many adopted from ancient Egyptian practices, 207- 208; Jesus repudiated, never kept, 222; Catholic and Orthodox churches have replaced Word of God, 252; see also Herodotus; Jewish traditions

Transfiguration, of Jesus, 292-293

Translation, author’s commentary of, 5; see also Stephens Text

Translations, of ba erev and ben ha arbayim, see Revised Standard Version; Moffat; New English Bible; Jewish Publication Society; Tanakh; Jerusalem Bible; New American Standard Bible

Transubstantiation, not supported by Scripture, 246; see also Baal; Catholicism; Mass; Seder meal

Trepidation, the mental state in which Israel ate the first Passover, 67-68; see also Haste

Triennial Cycle, official reading of entire OT in synagogues every three years, 186

Trinity, doctrine of, not supported by Scriptural revelation of the God-head, or Elohim, 327; see also Holy Spirit; Jesus Christ

Trumpets, Feast of, sacrifices required for, 109

Truth of God, to judge us all, 5; see also Word of truth

Tsacah, Hebrew word meaning “roast,” not used in Deuteronomy 16:7, 169- 170; used in Passover command in Exodus 12:9, 169; see also Bashal; Boil; Deuteronomy 16:7; Seethe; Sodden

Twilight, same as ben ha arbayim, 50; Fox defines as equal to “between the setting times,” 52; see also Ezekiel 12:7; Exodus 3 0: 7 - 8; Kar a i t e s ; Jeremiah 6:4; New American Standard Bible; Proverbs 7:9; Revised Standard Version


Ugarit, ancient Canaanite city on coast of N. Syria, 131; see also Ras Shamra texts

Unconditional oath, Abramic Covenant confirmed by, 287; see also Genesis 22:15-18

Unconverted mind, enmity toward God, 12

Under the law, Jesus born under, 340-341; see also Galatians 4:4-5; Grace of God

Unilateral covenant, cut by God with Abraham, 269; account of God entering into covenant with Abraham, 271; see also Covenant;


Unleavened Bread, Feast of commemorates Exodus not Passover, 18; a seven day festival beginning at sunset the end of Nisan 14, 89; ordinances regulating, 89- 90, 98ff; began on night of Exodus, 89; observed from ba erev of the 14th to ba erev of the 21st, 89; Nisan 15 begins first holy day of, 95-96; a memorial of the Exodus, 98; crossing of Red Sea on seventh day of, 98ff; sacrifices for, 109; originally separate from Passover, 116; combined with Passover and shortened from eight days to seven, 119-120; how Passover was combined with, 119-120; when and where renamed “Passover” 120- 121; ordinances for sacrifices and offerings in Deuteronomy 16, 111-112, 159ff; why renamed Passover, 203; Baal’s sevenday counterfeit of, 133- 134; sacrifices required at tabernacle for, Num. 28:17 -24, 168; peace and thankofferings during, 170; offerings for renamed “Passover offerings” by Ezra, 174; called “the Jews’ Passover” in John 2:23-25, 225; Gospel references to as “the Passover of the Jews,” 226ff see also Conspiracy; Deuteronomy 16; Exodus; Hezekiah; John 19:31; Josephus; Josiah; Mishnah; Passover offerings

Unlucky days, in worship of Baal, 132-133; see also Nisan 14; Nisan 21; Sabbath

Until, a preposition meaning “up to” but not “into” or “through” 26, 35, 56; see also Ad; Gad

Unworthiness, meaning of in relationship to observing NT Passover, 245-246, 263 -264; see also Worthiness

Ur, fourth Dynasty of, and its influence on Passover, 128; see also Sargon I

Uzziah, king of Judah 808- 756 BC; attempted to perform priestly duties, 142


Veil, of temple, torn on crucifixion day of Jesus Christ, 378ff; see also Darkness; Earthquake; Edersheim; Martin; Resurrection


War. 6.5.3, 381

Washed, Greek louoo, meaning of in relationship to baptism, 319ff; see also Baptism; Footwashing; Louoo; Part

Watches, of the night; see First watch; Second watch; Third watch

Wave-offering, Exodus 29:24, 103

Wave sheaf, Jewish practice of, in relationship to ba erev, 36; dispute over wave sheaf between Pharisees and Sadducees, 36-37; at time of Joshua, 189; see also Edersheim; Morrow after the Sabbath; Sunday

Whole burnt-offering, in view of Kuhn and Grabbe the evening sacrifice was offered in the afternoon before sunset, 30; see also Daily burnt-offering; Evening sacrifice; Morning sacrifice

Wilderness, first Passover of, 19; of Sin, 42-43; story of Israel’s wandering in for forty years, 124; see also Statutes

Wine, symbolizes shed blood of Jesus Christ, 347

Wine offering, same as Drink offering, 104

Word, the New Covenant name for Jesus Christ, 327; New Covenant name for Jehovah Elohim of Old Covenant, 327; see also Elohim;

Word of God, only understood through love, 12; spiritual keys to understanding, 12-15

Word of Truth, 12; see also Spirit of truth

Works, of the flesh, put to death through Jesus Christ and Holy Spirit of God, 313-314

Worthiness, meaning of in relationship to observing NT Passover, 245-246, 263- 264; see also Unworthiness


Yohm, Hebrew noun meaning “day”, 73

Yoma 39b, 381

Yoma 43c, 381


Zadok, Mishnic rabbi, and details of temple-centered Passover, 216

Zebah, Hebrew word for peace-offering, not found in Numbers 28:16, 110

Zebahim 5:8, 76

Zedekiah, his maledictory oath made with the sons of Judah, 270-271

Zerubbabel, 203-204