Book: Judaism— Revelation of Moses Or Religion of Men?


While the Talmud is clearly upheld as the principal text of Judaism, numerous rabbinic writings have over the centuries added to the mass of Jewish halachah (law or legislation), bringing controversy and confusion to the Judaic religion. In some ways, the Talmud was never really “closed” in 500 AD. In The Jewish Book of Why, author Alfred Kolatch explains that novel “rulings and interpretations” continued to develop among rabbis as Jewish communities were established farther and farther from the Judaic centers of learning in Babylon and Palestine. He writes: “Throughout the middle ages, scholars such as Rashi (1040-1105) in France wrote commentaries on the Scriptures and the Talmud. Questions of law (halachah) were addressed by scholars on issues where the Talmud did not offer direct guidance or was incomplete” (p. 5). The commentaries of Rashi (Rabbi Solomon Yitzchaki) are revered in Judaism as divinely-inspired. In fact, because it is the consensus of rabbis that the Pentateuch cannot be understood apart from the insight provided by Rashi, his writings are regarded as equal to or greater than the text of the written Torah—which God Himself gave to the nation of Israel by the hand of Moses. Following Rashi, another esteemed sage—Rabbi Moses Maimonides (1135-1204)—made his indelible mark on Judaism with his highly authoritative Mishneh Torah.

Kolatch notes that by the 12th century Jewish authorities were becoming concerned about the wide variety of opinion and interpretation that was developing. “An effort to create uniformity began.... The German rabbi Jacob Levi Mollin wrote an early Jewish code (published after his death in 1427) that established standards for synagogue practice and community conduct. His efforts were expanded a century later by Joseph Caro, a 16th-century Spanish scholar, with the Shulchan Aruch ('The Prepared Table'), or 'Code of Jewish Law' “ (pp. 5-6). Caro's chief critic, Moses Isserles, subsequently added to the work, resulting in a version that is today regarded by Orthodox Jews as the authoritative legal code of Judaism (p. 6).

Still, Judaism continued to develop and revise its halachah as new attitudes and customs emerged with the spread of the religion around the world. In the middle part of the 19th century, a definitive Code of Jewish Law emerged—the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch by Rabbi Solomon Ganzfried (1804-1886). Kitzur means “abbreviated,” as Ganzfried's 1864 version is actually a summary of the work produced by Caro.

According to the Internet site Wikipedia, the Kitzur (as it is typically called) was “written for God-fearing Jews who are not in a position to study and comprehend the [original and much more detailed] Shulchan Aruch [by Caro].” Composed in a Hebrew that can be easily understood, the Kitzur “states what is permitted and what is forbidden without ambiguity.” As Gan-zfried was Hungarian, his work reflects the customs of the Jews of Hungary at that time (

The Encyclopedia Judaica notes that Ganzfried's code “set forth the laws required to be known by every Jew, written in simple language and appropriately arranged.... The Kitzur was an immediate and extraordinary success.... In the century since [its initial publication], it has been reprinted more than any other Jewish work, with the exception of the Talmud.” (vol. 7, p. 314).

As previously noted, Avi ben Mordechai, a former observant Orthodox Jew, has personally experienced the oppressive burden of rabbinic codes of law. In his commentary on the book of Galatians, Mordechai writes, “[After many years,] I realized that the [rabbis'] halachah had no end in sight; that it was nothing short of a deep, black hole and an endless system of legal minutiae. It was always tiring for me to try to keep up with all the daily demands [of Judaic law]. I did not have a difficult time agreeing with Rebbe Nachman of Breslov (1772-1810) who once said that his daily religious obligations felt like a crushing burden (The Empty Chair, p. 40)” (Galatians—A Torah-Based Commentary in First-Century Hebraic Context, p. 48; emphasis added).

The words of the renowned Rabbi Joseph Hertz also bear repeating: “Religion in the Talmud [and as thus expressed in the Kitzur] attempts to penetrate the whole of human life with the sense of law and right. Nothing human is in its eyes mean or trivial; everything is regulated and sanctified by religion. Religious precept and duty accompany man from his earliest years to the grave and beyond it. [The codes] guide his desires and actions at every moment” (Foreword to The Babylonian Talmud, Soncino Edition, pp. 25-26; emphasis added).

To give the reader a taste of Jewish halachah, we have reproduced portions from Ganzfried's Kitzur or “Code of Jewish Law” as translated by Hyman Goldin. The work was published in 1993 by the Hebrew Publishing Company, Rockaway Beach, New York. We have included the entire Table of Contents, as it gives a good summary of the kind of subjects covered by the Kitzur. Following the content listing are abridged “sample” portions representing a cross-section of the book; key phrases have been emphasized in bold type.

Keep in mind that the Code of Jewish Law is based directly on the precepts of the Talmud. Note the absolute absurdity of the entries as the Kitzur attempts to legislate daily life down to the most minute detail—as if followers of Rabbinic Judaism were utterly void of conscience or common sense.

Code of Jewish Law





Rabbi Solomon Ganzfried


Translated by




Hebrew Publishing Company


Code of Jewish Law

Chapter 2

Hand Washing in the Morning

1. Since every man upon rising from his sleep in the morning is like a newborn creature, insofar as the worship of the Creator is concerned, he should prepare himself for worship by washing his hands out of a vessel, just as the priests used to wash their hands daily out of the wash-basin before performing their service in the Temple. This hand-washing is based on the biblical verse (Psalms 26:6-7): “I will wash my hands in innocency, and I will compass Thy altar, O Lord; that I may publish with a loud voice,” etc. There is another reason given by the Kabbalists (Zohar, quoted in Beth Joseph) for this morning hand-washing: when a man is asleep, the holy soul departs from his body, and an unclean spirit descends upon him. When rising from sleep, the unclean spirit departs from his entire body, except from his fingers, and does not depart until one spills water upon them three times alternately. One is not allowed to walk four cubits (six feet) without having one's hands washed, except in cases of extreme necessity.

2. The first garment which a male must put on, is the tallit katan (the small four-fringed garment, commonly known as the arba kanfoth, four cornered), for one is not allowed to walk even as much as four cubits without having a fringed garment on. But as his hands are still unwashed, he may not say the benediction on putting it on.

3. The ritual hand-washing in the morning is performed as follows: Take a cup of water with the right hand and put it in the left; pour some water upon the right hand. Take the cup back in the right hand and pour some water on the left. This performance is repeated three times. It is best to pour the water over the hands as far as the wrists, but in case of emergency it suffices if the water covers the hands up to the joints of the fingers. One must also wash his face in honor of the Creator, as it is said (Genesis 9:6): “For in the image of God He hath made the man.” One must also rinse the mouth, because we must pronounce the Great Name in purity and cleanliness.

4. The hands must be washed into a vessel only. The water thus used must not be utilized for any other purpose, because an evil spirit rests on it

(contaminated, and injurious to health), and it must not be spilt in a place frequented by human beings.

5. Before the morning hand-washing, one should not touch either the mouth, the nose, the eyes, the ears, the lower orifice or any kind of food, or an open vein, because the evil spirit that rests upon the hands before washing will cause injury to these things.

6. It is best to perform the morning ablution with water poured from a vessel by human effort, just as it must be done when washing the hands before meals. But in case of emergency, and one wishes to pray, one may wash his hands in any manner, even when the water is not poured by human effort, and one may pronounce the benediction: Al netilat yadayim (concerning the washing of the hands). If there is a river or snow at hand, one should dip the hand in it three times. If, however, there is no water in any form available, one may wipe one's hands with some material, and say the benediction: “Blesses art ..... for cleansing (not washing) the hands.” Afterwards, upon finding water and the required vessel, one must wash the hands properly without pronouncing any benediction.

7. It is written (Psalms 103:1): “Bless the Lord, O my soul; and all that is within me, bless His holy name.” Since it is a man's duty to bless the Holy Name with all that is in him, he is not allowed to begin worshiping God before he has cleaned himself of bodily impurities. As one ordinarily has to respond to the call of nature in the morning, therefore one shall not pronounce the benediction over washing the hands in the morning until one has eased one's self, then wash the hands again, pronounce the necessary benediction, and afterward proceed with the rest of the benedictions as given in the prayer-books.

8. If a person rises from his sleep while it is still night, and washes his hands as is required, and then stays awake until dawn; or if he falls asleep again while it is yet night; or if he sleeps sixty breaths (about one-half hour) in the daytime; or if he is awake the whole night—in all these cases it is doubtful whether or not hand-washing is necessary. He shall therefore wash his hands alternately three times, but without pronouncing the benediction.

9. Hands must be washed on the following occasions: On awakening from sleep, on leaving the lavatory or bath, after paring one's nails, after having one's hair cut, after taking off the shoes with bare hands, after having sexual intercourse, after touching a vermin or searching the clothes for vermin, after combing one's head, after touching parts of the body which are generally covered, after leaving a cemetery, after walking in a funeral procession or leaving a house where a corpse lay, and after blood-letting.

Chapter 3

On Dressing and Deportment

1. It is written (Micah 6:8): “And to walk humbly with thy God.” Therefore it is the duty of every man to be modest in all his ways. When putting on or removing his shirt or any other undergarment, he should be careful not to expose his body unduly. He should put it on or remove it while still lying covered in bed. He should never say to himself: “Lo, I am all alone in my inner chamber and in the dark, who can see me?” For the glory of the Holy One, blessed be He, fills the universe, and darkness and light are alike to Him, blessed be His name; and modesty and a sense of shame indicate humility before Him, blessed be His name.

Chapter 4

Rules of Decency

4. While in the lavatory, it is forbidden to think of sacred matters; it is, therefore, best to concentrate there upon one's business affairs and accounts, so that one may not be led to think either of holy matters or, God forbid, indulge in sinful thoughts. On the Sabbath, when it is forbidden to think of business, one should think of some interesting things that one has either seen or heard, or something similar to that.

Chapter 5

Cleanness of Places Used for Holy Purposes

2. It is forbidden even to think of anything holy in a place where there is excrement or urine, or anything that produces a bad odor, unless it is covered, as it is said (Deuteronomy 23:14): “And thou shalt cover what cometh from thee.”

4. Whenever there exists any doubt concerning the existence of unclean matter, we must not utter a holy word, before we examine the place. It is forbidden to pray in a house in which there is foul matter in the [attic].

5. We must keep away, while praying, from the excrement and urine of an infant who is able to eat as much as the size of an olive, of any bread-stuff, even when cooked, in the space of time that an adult can eat a slice. It is better, however, to stay away from the excrement of an infant eight days old.

6. When praying, we must keep at a distance from the excrement of a human being, even if it has no bad odor, and from the excrement of a cat, marten, and Idumean cock. We are not bound to remove from the excrement of any other animal or bird, because it ordinarily produces no bad odor, but we must remove from it if it does.

8. How far must we keep away from excrement (in order to be allowed to utter holy words)? If the excrement is in the rear, one must remove a distance of no less than four cubits from the spot where the bad odor ceases; even if one is unable to smell, one must keep away the same distance. However, if it does not have a foul odor, it suffices to remove a distance of four cubits from the place where it is found. If the unclean matter is in front of one, one must remove from it until it disappears from view.

11. If one had let wind, one is forbidden to utter anything holy until the bad odor had ceased; the same applies to a case where the bad odor had issued from his neighbor. But if one is engaged in the study of the Torah, one need not interrupt his study on account of a bad odor that had issued from his neighbor.

12. We must keep away from a lavatory (when praying), even though it is enclosed by partitions and does not contain any unclean matter.

14. It is forbidden to speak or to think of any holy matter in the bathhouse. It is forbidden to utter any name by which the Holy One, blessed be He, is known, either in a bath-house or in a filthy alley.... It is forbidden to say Shalom (peace) to a friend in a bath-house, for Shalom is the name of the Holy One, blessed be He; as it is written (Judges 6:24): “And he called it, Adonai-Shalom.” Some authorities are of the opinion that if a man's name is Shalom, he must not be addressed by his name in the places mentioned above. Others permit it, because there is no intention of saying anything pertaining to peace, but simply to call the man by his name. The general custom is to be lenient in this regard, but the God-fearing should follow the stricter opinion.

Chapter 8

What May not be Done from Dawn Until Praying Time

1. As soon as the day dawns, that is, when the first light of the sun is seen in the East—since this is the time when prayers may begin (if one had by chance prayed at that early hour, one had complied with his duty) we are not permitted to begin any kind of work, or transact business, or start a journey until one had prayed, as it is said (Psalms 85:13): “Righteousness shall go before him; and he shall make its footsteps a way to walk in.” “Righteousness” means prayer, wherein we declare the righteousness of our Creator, and only afterward are we to direct our footsteps on the road of our material desires.

2. One is not allowed to eat or drink before praying, as it is said (Leviticus 19: 26): “Ye shall not eat with the blood,” which means that you shall not eat before you pray for your lives. To one who first eats and drinks and then prays, the following Scriptural text applies (I Kings 14:9): “And hast cast Me behind thy back.” Do not read Geveha (thy back), but read Geeha (thy pride); the Holy One, blessed be He, said: “After this man had catered to his pride, he then vouchsafed to accept the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven.” Before praying, it is forbidden even to drink coffee or tea with sugar and milk. But if one is old or feeble and cannot wait for his food until the congregation leaves the synagogue, especially on Sabbaths and festivals, when the services are prolonged, one may pray the Shaharit (morning prayer) at home, then recite the kiddush, and partake of some food. Then he should go to the synagogue, listen attentively while the congregation prays the Shaharit, and afterwards pray with them the Musaph (additional prayers); but one should not drink coffee with sugar, or the like, without first accepting the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven. However, if one is ill, this is not an act of pampering one's ego. If one cannot concentrate upon the prayers while hungry or thirsty, one may eat and drink before praying.

3. There are some authorities who hold that even if a man awakes at midnight, he is not allowed to taste any food before praying; and it is proper to follow this stricter opinion. But if he has a weak heart, he may partake of food and drink to fortify himself for the Divine Commands.

4. Water, tea or coffee without sugar or milk may be taken before praying, even after dawn, because there is no trace of egotistic indulgence in this.

5. Before praying in the morning, we are not allowed to go to a neighbor to meet him or to say “good morning” as it is said (Isaiah 2:22): “Withdraw yourselves from man, whose breath is still in his nostrils; because for what is he to be esteemed?” This means, what is his importance, that you have honored him before you have honored Me? But if we meet a neighbor casually, we are allowed to salute him. It is proper, however, to alter somewhat the usual form of salutation, so that we remember that we must not engage in other matters before praying.

Chapter 40

Washing the Hands Before Meals

1. Before eating bread over which the benediction Hamotzi (who bringeth forth) is said, one must [ritually] wash his hands first [see Matthew 15:2].

If the bread is no less than the size of an egg, he must say the benediction for washing hands; but if it is less than that, he need not say the benediction.

2. The water used for washing the hands must be poured out of a vessel that is perfect, having neither a hole nor a crack. It must also be even at the top without any indents or projecting parts. When using a vessel having a spout, we must not let the water run through the spout, because that part is not the vessel proper since it does not hold any liquid. We must, therefore, pour the water from the edge of the vessel which contains the liquid.

4. It is difficult to ascertain the exact quantity of water required for washing the hands. We should, therefore, pour water lavishly on our hands, for Rab Hisda said (Shabbat 62b): “I wash with handfuls of water and handfuls of goodness are given me.” We first wash our right hand and then our left. The water must cover the entire hand up to the wrist. No part of the hands should be left unwashed; therefore, the fingers must be slightly parted and raised somewhat upward, in order that the water may run down the entire length of the fingers. It must also cover the finger tips and the full circumference of the fingers. The entire hand should be covered with one outpouring of water. We should, therefore, not wash the hands out of a vessel with a narrow opening through which the water cannot flow out freely. It is best to pour water twice on each hand.

5. After washing both hands, we rub them together and then raise them upward, as it is written (Psalms 134:2): “Lift up your hands,” etc. Then, before drying them, we recite the benediction: “Blessed art Thou, O Lord our God, King of the universe, who hath sanctified us by His commandments and hath commanded us [in the Talmud] concerning the washing of the hands.” He who is accustomed to pour water twice on each hand, should first pour once on each hand, rub them together, pronounce the benediction, and thereafter pour a second time. We must be careful to have our hands thoroughly dried, and we should not dry them with our shirts, because it is harmful to the memory.

6. If after pouring the water upon one hand, he touched it with the other hand, or someone else had touched it, the water on the hand becomes contaminated by the contact. The hand must, therefore, be dried and then washed a second time. But if that happens after he had pronounced the benediction, the benediction need not be repeated.

8. If the color of the water has changed, either because of the place or because something fell into it, it is unfit for the ritual washing of the hands; but if the change was due to natural causes, the water is fit.

9. If one touches water before washing the hands, the water does not become defiled by it. Therefore, upon leaving the lavatory, one may take handful of water out of the barrel to wash the hands with it; and the remainder may be used for washing the hands before meals. However, if we dip the hands in the water to clean them, even if we have dipped in it only our little finger for the purpose of cleaning it, all the water becomes invalid for the ritual washing, since some work has been done with it.

13. The water must come down upon the hands by manual power; if it comes down spontaneously, it is invalid for the ritual washing.

14. It is forbidden to eat without first washing the hands, even if they are wrapped in a cloth. If one is on a journey and has no water, but water can be obtained either within four miles ahead or within a mile in the rear, one must travel that distance in order to wash the hands before eating. But if no water can be obtained even within such distances . one may wrap the hands in a cloth or put on gloves and eat.

Chapter 44

Laws Concerning the Washing of Hands and the Saying of Grace After Meals

1. Many people are lenient regarding the washing of hands after meals, but the God-fearing should be careful to observe it scrupulously. We are required to wash only the first two joints of our fingers, holding our hands downward before drying them. He who leads in saying the Grace should wash his hands first.

2. We must not pour this water on the ground where people walk, because an evil spirit rests upon it. We must wash into a vessel or underneath the table. We dry our hands before reciting Grace, and we must not pause between the washing and the reciting of Grace.

4. It is customary either to remove the knives left on the table before reciting Grace, or else to cover them. For the table is compared to an altar, and concerning the altar, it is written (Deuteronomy 27:5): “Thou shalt not lift up any iron upon them.” For iron shortens the life of man while the altar prolongs life, and it is improper that one which shortens life should be raised on one that prolongs it.... The custom prevails in many communities not to cover the knives on the Sabbath or on festivals; for on weekdays they represent the brutal might of Esau, but on the Sabbath and festivals there is no Satan or evil occurrence. And a custom in Israel is as valid as Law.

5. Even if we have eaten only a piece of bread no larger than the size of an olive, we must say the Grace thereafter.

6. Grace after meals should be recited neither standing nor walking, but sitting. If we have walked to and fro in the house while eating, or if we have been standing or reclining, we must sit when reciting the Grace, in order that we may recite it with devotion. While saying Grace, we should not recline on our seats, because it is indicative of pride, but we should sit erect, put on the coat and hat, in order that the fear of Heaven be upon us, and that our minds be concentrated upon saying the Grace with reverence and awe.

7. It is the custom to respond Amen to all the prayers beginning with Hara-haman (the all-merciful) contained in the Grace, for it is stated in the Midrash that when we hear someone pray for a certain thing or bless an Israelite, even not mentioning the Divine Name, we are bound to respond Amen to it.

18. If a non-Jew is present in the room when Grace is recited, we should add: “Us the sons of the Covenant, all of us together.”

Chapter 46

Forbidden Foods

1. The blood found in eggs is forbidden. Occasionally, it is forbidden to eat the entire egg on account of blood-spots. Therefore, the egg should be examined before using it in the preparation of food.

2. The use of the blood of fish is permitted, but if it is collected into a vessel, its use is forbidden for the sake of appearance, because people might think that it is forbidden blood. If, however, it is evident that it is the blood of a fish, as when it contains scales, then its use is permissible.

3. If we bite off a piece of bread or any other food, and blood from our gums is upon it, we must cut off the tinted part and throw it away, The blood from the gums may be soaked up on a weekday, since it has not dis-charged itself, but not on a Sabbath.

4. Blood is sometimes found in milk, which comes out of the cow's udder together with the milk; when that occurs, a rabbi should be consulted.

5. Meat and dairy products may not be eaten or cooked together, nor is it permissible to derive any benefit from such mixed foods. If, therefore, meat and dairy products happen to become mixed together, a rabbi should be consulted, as in certain instances a benefit may be derived from it, while in others it may not.

6. Two Jewish acquaintances may not eat at one table, if one eats meat and the other dairy products, even though they are at odds, unless they make a noticeable mark between them, for instance, by having a separate cover laid for each, or by placing upon the table a certain article that generally does not belong there, between their respective food. They must be careful not to drink any liquid out of the same vessel, as the food clings to it.

8. It is customary to mark all utensils used for dairy foods, so that they might not be interchanged with those used for meat.

9. After eating meat or a dish prepared with meat, we should wait six hours before eating dairy food, and the one who masticates food for an infant is also obliged to wait that length of time. If after waiting six hours, we find particles of meat between our teeth, we must remove it, but we need not wait thereafter. We should cleanse our mouth and rinse it, that is, we should eat a little bread to cleanse our mouth with it, and then rinse our mouth with water or any other liquid.

11. After eating cheese, we may eat meat immediately thereafter at another meal, but we must carefully examine our hands to make sure that no particles of cheese cling to them; we must also cleanse the teeth and rinse the mouth.

12. If we desire to eat meat after eating cheese, we must remove from the table the rest of the bread of which we ate with the cheese. Cheese should not be eaten upon the tablecloth on which we have eaten meat, and conversely, no meat should be eaten upon the tablecloth upon which we have eaten cheese; nor should we cut bread to eat with cheese, with a knife used for cutting meat, or vice versa, even if the knife is clean.

13. If we cut onions or some other pungent things with a knife used for cutting meat, and put it in food made of milk, or vice versa, a rabbi should be consulted as to the fitness of the food.

14. If we prepare a dish of meat with the extract of almonds, we must put whole almonds in it on account of its deceptive appearance (because it looks like milk, thus averting the suspicion of having transgressed the law, by having boiled meat and milk together).

17. If we give something in a sack to a non-Jew, either to be forwarded or to be stored, it is necessary that the stitches of the sack be on the inside and it must be tied and sealed.

18. If we happen to forward, through a non-Jew, a slaughtered beast or fowl or anything else without a seal, then we must consult a rabbi about it.

19. Cheese or other articles of food which are in the hands of a non-Jew, although they are sealed or stamped, stating that they are ritually fit for food, are, nevertheless, unfit for use as long as we do not know who has sealed them.

20. Care should be taken that a Jew and a non-Jew should not cook or fry together in uncovered pots or frying pans, one pot containing food which is ritually fit, and the other containing ritually unfit food.

22. Care must be taken not to leave culinary utensils in the house of a non-Jew, lest he make use of them.

25. We must not knead dough with milk, lest it be eaten with meat....

26. If bread has been baked and meat has been roasted in the same oven and the oven was closed while the meat was uncovered, it is forbidden to eat that bread with dairy foods. It is permitted, however, to eat the bread with milk if the roasted meat was covered....

27. If milk or grease overflows on the bottom of an oven, the oven must be cleansed by means of glowing heat in accordance with the law, that is to say, glowing coal should be spread upon the entire surface so that it is heated white.

Chapter 72

The Holiness of the Sabbath

1. The holy Sabbath is the great sign and covenant which the Holy One, blessed be He, has given us to bear witness that “In six days God made the heavens and the earth and all that is in them, and He rested on the seventh day.” This belief, that God is the Creator of the universe, is the foundation of our faith.

2. He who violates the Sabbath publicly is regarded as an idolater in every respect; if he touches wine, it becomes unfit for use; the bread he bakes is like the bread of an idolater, so is his cooked food. “Publicly” in this regard is when ten Jews know of the desecration, even if they don't actually see it. This is the law as deduced from the Talmud and the commentaries.

4. It is preferable to make the purchases for the Sabbath on Friday rather than on Thursday. However, articles of food requiring preparation should be procured on Thursday. While making the purchases, we should say: “It is in honor of the Sabbath.” In accordance with the ordinances of Ezra, the clothes for the Sabbath should be washed on Thursday, not on Friday, as on that day all attention is needed for the preparation of the Sabbath needs.

9. No regular work should be done on Friday from the Minhah ketannah (small minhah; 3:30 p.m.) on. But casual work is permissible. It is forbidden to make clothes for someone else. But when a person is poor and he desires to earn enough for the Sabbath meals, he may work all day Friday, just the same as on Hol Hammoed (Intermediate Days of the festivals). Giving a haircut to a Jew is permissible all day on Friday, even if one is a professional barber and he does it for pay, inasmuch as it is obvious that the hair cutting is for the sake of the Sabbath. It is customary to close shops an hour before the Sabbath sets in.

10. From the ninth hour (3:30 p.m.) on, we should abstain from having a regular meal ..... so that we may eat the Sabbath meal with relish.

11. A Jew must read every week the entire weekly portion of the Torah; that is, he must read the Scriptural text twice, and the Targum once. The reading may begin on Sunday. However, it is best to do so Friday afternoon. One should read twice each Parshah (subdivision), whether it ends a chapter or not, or even when it ends in the middle of a verse, and then read the Tar-gum once. After finishing the Targum, one must read one verse of the To-rah, so as to conclude the Parshah with a Biblical verse....

12. On Friday, one must wash the face, hands, and feet in warm water, and if possible, one should bathe the whole body in warm water and then immerse in a ritual pool.

14. On Friday, one must wash his head, pare his nails, and cut his hair, if too long. Finger and toe nails should not be cut on the same day, nor should the nails and the hair be cut on Rosh Hodesh (New Moon) even when it occurs on a Friday. Some are careful not to cut the nails in consecutive order, but alternately, starting with the finger next to the thumb of the right hand.... On the left hand, one starts with the fourth finger.... Some are also careful not to cut the nails on Thursday. For they begin to grow on the third day, which is the Sabbath. One must burn the nails after they are cut.

15. On Friday, one should review his deeds of the past week, repent and make amends for all misdeeds, because the Sabbath eve embodies all the weekdays, just as the eve of Rosh Hodesh embodies the whole month.

16. One should try to wear fine clothes as well as a nice tallit on the Sabbath; for it is written (Isaiah 58:13): “And thou shalt honor it,” which is explained by the Rabbis to mean that the garments worn on the Sabbath shall not be the same as those worn on weekdays. And even when one is on a journey, among non-Jews, one shall put on the Sabbath clothes, for the attire is not in honor of men but in deference to the Sabbath.

17. Cooked food must be removed from the burning coals before the Sabbath begins. In the event one forgot to do so, one may not remove the pot, for it might touch the coal and increase the fire. It may, however, be removed by a non-Jew.

20. The sealed door of the oven should be opened on the Sabbath by a non-Jew. If a non-Jew is not available, a minor should do it. But in the absence of either, it may be done by anyone, but in a manner which is not ordinarily done on weekdays.

21. If one puts a pot of coffee into a hole in the ground on Friday to be used on the Sabbath, and covers it with pillows or something similar so that it keep warm; if he hides it in sand, he is not permitted to cover the whole vessel with the sand. Even if only a part of the vessel is covered with the sand and the rest of it is covered with garments, so that the vessel is covered on all sides, it is likewise forbidden. To make it legal, one must cover only one-half or one-third of the pot with the sand, the rest of it should remain uncovered, and then he may put a board or an inverted vessel on the top of the hole, so that there is a vacant space between the top cover and the pot containing the coffee, then he may put pillows or garments on the top.

Chapter 73

Work Done by a Non-Jew on the Sabbath

1. A Jew is forbidden to allow a non-Jew to do work for him on the Sabbath. This law is based upon the Biblical verse (Exodus 12:16): “No manner of work shall be done,” which implies even by a non-Jew. However, if the work is delivered to the non-Jew on Friday, it is permissible even if he does it on the Sabbath, but only on the following conditions: (a) The non-Jew should take the work before the Sabbath, but not on the Sabbath day.

2. (b) The amount of compensation should be stipulated in advance, then the non-Jew does the work for his own sake, in order to get paid. Therefore, one who employs a non-Jewish servant, is forbidden to allow the latter to do any work on the Sabbath, as the work is done solely for the benefit of the Jew. If a non-Jew travels to a certain place (before the Sabbath), and a Jew asks him to deliver a letter, which will have to be carried on the Sabbath, he should be given some reward. Then he does it for compensation and not gratis.

5. (e) The work should not be connected with the soil, such as building or farm work . such as plowing or reaping, even if the non-Jew is hired at a stipulated price for the whole task. If, however, the non-Jew has a share in the crops, and it is customary in that region for a farm worker to receive a share in the crops, it is permissible. If the farm is far away, where there is no Jew in the vicinity within two thousand cubits (three thousand feet), it is permissible if the non-Jew performs the work at a stipulated sum, so long as he is not hired by the day.

6. If a non-Jew has illegally built a house for a Jew on the Sabbath, it is well to be scrupulous and not move into it. (There are many divergent opinions about this).

7. The owner of a farm or a mill may rent it to a non-Jew, although he will work there on the Sabbath. But it is forbidden to rent a bathing establishment to a non-Jew. If the Jew does not own the bathing establishment, but only rented it from a non-Jew, he should consult a rabbi on how to act. The owner of a hotel, a glass factory, a brick factory, and the like, should also consult a rabbi how to act.

8. A Jew is forbidden, under any circumstances, to allow a non-Jew to do work at his house on the Sabbath. Even if a non-Jewish servant desires to do some work for himself on the Sabbath, he should be forbidden by the Jewish employer.

9. If a non-Jewish tailor made a garment for a Jew and brought it to him on the Sabbath, he is permitted to put it on. If, however, it is known that the tailor has completed it on the Sabbath, it should not be worn, unless in a case of extreme necessity.

Chapter 74

Embarking on a Vessel on the Sabbath

1. We must not board a sea-going vessel the three days preceding the Sabbath, that is, from Wednesday on. But if we are bound on a sacred mission, we may embark even on a Friday.

3. Boarding a ship on Friday is permissible only when one goes on board and remains there until nightfall. Even if one goes home and remains there overnight, one is still permitted to embark on the Sabbath, so long as the ship does not make the trip for Jews only. But since he was home on the Sabbath, he had established a residence for the Sabbath at the house. Therefore, if the ship has made a longer journey than two thousand cubits, and has reached land on the Sabbath, he is not permitted to walk there more than four cubits from the landing.

4. It is permissible to board a vessel on the Sabbath for the sake of praying with an assembly of ten, or for the sake of performing another religious duty, provided the vessel makes the trip also for others. It is, nevertheless, preferable that the Jew should go on board on Friday while it is yet daytime, and remain there till after nightfall, after which he may return home and come back again on the Sabbath, but it is not permitted if the vessel makes the trip for Jews only.

Chapter 75

The Sabbath Candles

1. Everyone must put all work aside and light the Sabbath candles at least one-half hour before the stars emerge. If Mizemor shir leyom hasaabbat (A Psalm, a song for the Sabbath) has already been recited at the synagogue, even if it is two hours before nightfall, the Sabbath laws become binding upon the minority from that time on, and any manner of work is forbidden.

2. It is meritorious to light as many candles as possible in honor of the Sabbath. Some light ten candles, others seven. In no event should less than two candles be lit....

3. The precept is best performed by using olive oil or almond oil which is generally used for this purpose. But there are certain oils which are ritually unfit. The wick too, should be of good quality, such as vine-fiber flax, or hemp, for some other materials are unfit for the purpose. The Sabbath candles may also be made of tallow, as is generally done in our regions. But it is forbidden to put some tallow in a vessel and place a wick in it. The one who lights the candles should see to it that he ignites most of the wick protruding from the candles. The same applies to tallow candles.

4. It is a well-established rule that the benediction for a precept must be said prior to its performance. This, however, cannot be practiced in the case of lighting the Sabbath candles, for by pronouncing the benediction the woman ushers in the Sabbath, after which no labor is to be performed. Therefore, the woman first lights the candles, shuts out the light by covering her face with her hands while pronouncing the benediction, then she removes her hands and looks at the light, which act makes it akin to saying the benediction before kindling the candles.

5. Men as well as women are obliged to light Sabbath candles. However, the fulfillment of this duty was left primarily to the woman, because she is always at home and attends to household duties. Another reason is that because the woman caused the fall of Adam and thereby extinguished the light of the world and darkened his soul which is called light, as it is written (Proverbs 20:27); “The soul of man is the light of God;” therefore, it is her duty to make amends by lighting the candles in honor of the Sabbath.

6. Happy are the women who make it a custom to wash themselves and to put on the Sabbath apparel before lighting the candles. However, they should first say the Minhah (afternoon) prayer, as by lighting the candles they usher in the Sabbath, and they would be unable to pray the weekday Minhah afterward. If a woman is delayed by her occupation, and reaches home about one-half hour before the Sabbath sets in, and if she should wash and change, she would run the risk of profaning the Sabbath, it is better that she should light the candles as she is, rather than risk a probable profanation of the Sabbath. If the husband sees that she is tardy in coming, it is mandatory for him to light the candles, and disregard her resentment.

7. When a man lights the Sabbath candles, knowing that he will afterwards have to do some work, it is advisable that he make a spoken or mental reservation that he does not thereby assume the Sabbath. If he inadvertently omits to make such a reservation, he is nevertheless, permitted to do work thereafter, as a husband's lighting of the candles is not ordinarily an act of ushering in the Sabbath.

8. The candles should be lit in the room where the meals are served, in order to indicate that they are lit in honor of the Sabbath. They should not be lit in one place and then transferred to another, except in an emergency.... If one wishes to use for the Sabbath a candle that has been burning, it should be extinguished and then relit in order to make it clear that it is dedicated to the Sabbath.

9. It is necessary to light candles in every room that is being used. If one is at home with his wife, who lights candles in one room and pronounces a benediction, it is not required to pronounce a benediction over the candles lit in other rooms....

10. It is the custom that if many women light candles in the same house, each woman lights candles and pronounces a benediction, because the more light the more joy. However, two women should not put their candles in one candlestick; it may, however, be done in an emergency....

14. If a woman has once neglected to light the Sabbath candles, she must light an extra candle every Friday as long as she lives. If she has neglected to light candles several times, she must add an extra candle for each time. This is done to impress upon her to be careful in the future; therefore, if she was prevented from lighting the candles by an accident, she need not light additional candles.

Chapter 80

Some Labors Forbidden on the Sabbath

The principal works we are forbidden to perform on the Sabbath are already known to most of the children of Israel. The list given herein comprises works that are not generally known to be forbidden; they are common things performed in the course of our daily lives.

1. It is forbidden to do work that requires concentration before a lamp. The Rabbis have forbidden this, lest one forgets and tilts the lamp in order to bring the oil closer to the wick, and then one will be guilty of “igniting.” It is, however, the prevailing custom to permit studying before the light of our modern candles, in which the tallow or the wax firmly sticks to the wick. But one must make a certain mark, so as to remember not to snuff off the wick. According to the view of Maimonides, the last named act is a violation of a Mosaic Law. It is impermissible to snuff off the wick, even through a non-Jew.

2. It is forbidden to open a door or a window opposite a burning candle, lest the flame be extinguished; but one may close the window or the door. It is forbidden to open or to close the door of an oven in which a fire is burning, for by so doing, one either increases or decreases the fire.

3. Pouring boiling gravy on pieces of bread or matzah is forbidden. One should first pour the gravy into a dish, let it cool off until it is fit to eat, and then put the bread or the matzah in it; but as long as the gravy is hot, even if it is already in the dish, it is forbidden to put either bread or matzah in it. It is likewise forbidden to put salt or spices into the gravy, even if it is already in the dish, and certainly not into the pot, as long as it is boiling hot, but we must wait until it cools off a little so that it is fit to eat. Some are more lenient with salt which has already been dissolved. However, a blessing upon the one who adheres to the stricter opinion regarding this. It is likewise forbidden to pour hot coffee or tea into a cup containing sugar. But we must pour the coffee or the tea into the cup and then put the sugar in it. In cases of necessity, one may be lenient about this.

4. It is forbidden to place fruit or water upon a hot stove, because the water might boil and the fruit might bake. Even if we intend only to warm it, nevertheless, since it is possible that on this spot it may boil or bake, it is forbidden to warm it there.

5. On the Sabbath, it is forbidden to store away victuals in any wrapping, even if it would not increase its warmth. Therefore, if we remove a pot containing victuals which have been cooked or heated in it, we are forbidden to wrap it or cover it with pillows, bolsters, or the like, in order to preserve its warmth.

6. Any article of food which cannot be eaten at all without being rinsed with water must not be rinsed on the Sabbath, even with cold water. It is allowed, however, to soak herring in cold water, since it is fit for food even before soaking.

10. If fruit spilled from a vessel, either in the house or in the courtyard, they may be gathered together on the Sabbath, if they are in one spot; but if they are scattered, when it requires physical exertion to do so, they may not be gathered into a basket, but they may be picked up and eaten one by one.

11. It is permissible to remove peas or the like from their pods, if the pods are still green and can also be eaten, because this is like separating one piece of food from another; but if the pods have become dry and no longer suitable for eating, it is forbidden to remove the peas from them.

12. It is forbidden to squeeze fruit to make a beverage, like squeezing lemons into water to make lemonade. Some authorities even prohibit to suck juice out of fruit with the mouth. At any rate, in eating grapes, one should not suck out the juice and throw away the skins.

13. A woman is not allowed to squeeze milk from her breasts into a vessel and feed the child with it; but she is allowed to squeeze out a little milk, in order to induce the child to take hold of the breast and suck it.

14. It is forbidden to crush snow or hail with the hands in order to obtain water; but it is permissible to put it into a cup of wine or water to cool the liquid, letting it melt of itself.

15. When we separate food, we must take only what we need for immediate consumption, but not a quantity that will be enough also for later use.... We may not peel garlic or onions and put them away, because it constitutes the violations known as “separation.” We are allowed to peel only what we need immediately. The upper shell which surrounds the whole garlic may not be removed even when needed for immediate consumption, because this constitutes a secondary act of “threshing.”

17. It is forbidden to strain any kind of beverage, for concerning this, there are many conflicting opinions. One is, however, permitted to drink through a cloth, as the law forbidding “separation” applies only where the food or drink is prepared prior to eating or drinking it, but in this case, one is simply holding back the waste from entering into the mouth. Nevertheless, some authorities disapprove of drinking water through a cloth, because it constitutes “washing.” The last law may be relaxed in cases of emergency where there is no pure water available. One, however, should not drink through the sleeve of one's shirt, because in this case it is feared that one will “wring” it.

19. If a fly has fallen into beverage or food, we must not remove the fly only, but should take some of the food or the beverage with it.

20. Pepper or salt, needed for seasoning food, may be crushed with the handle of a knife, or in any other convenient way, but may not be crushed in a mortar.

21. It is forbidden to cut onions or any other vegetables, except immediately before a meal, and even then they should not be cut into very thin slices.

22. It is forbidden to salt any substance which will be affected by the salt in such a way as to become soft or less pungent, because it constitutes the violation known as “tanning.” Therefore, it is forbidden to salt raw cucumbers, radishes, or onions, even if the quantity is limited to that which is needed for an immediate meal. But one may dip each piece in salt before eating it.

23. It is forbidden to salt a large quantity of boiled beans or peas together, because it tends to make them softer. This is forbidden even if one intends to eat them immediately.

24. Salads made of lettuce, cucumbers or onions, may be salted immediately before the meal, because oil and vinegar are generally added immediately, which weaken the effect of the salt.

25. The law forbidding “construction” applies also to edibles, as for instance, making cheese, or arranging fruit in a certain orderly way. Therefore, when making a salad of sliced onions and eggs or the milt of herring, one must be careful not to arrange them symmetrically, but put them on the plate at random.

26. On washing the dishes, one should not pour hot water on them; but he should pour the water into a vessel and then put the dishes into that vessel. We must not wash the dishes with a cloth, lest we wring it afterward; but we may wash them with a cloth especially used for this purpose, which we are not careful to wring even on weekdays. We are not allowed to use a detergent of oats, or the like, in washing glasses. Only dishes needed for the Sabbath may be washed on the Sabbath.

27. Whatever a Jew is forbidden to do on the Sabbath, is forbidden also to have it done through a non-Jew. Nevertheless, in the wintertime, since it is permissible to make a fire in the stove through a non-Jew for the purpose of heating the house, the custom prevails that the non-Jew places the cold victuals on the stove before he makes the fire; since the intention in making the fire is not to warm the victuals but to heat the house. But the victuals should not be placed on the stove after it was heated. It is certain, however, that if the intention in making the fire is not for the sake of heating the house, but for heating the victuals, it is forbidden. Some authorities forbid it even when the intention is to heat the house. Although the custom is to depend on the authorities who allow it, a scrupulous person should refrain from such a practice when it is not too urgent.... Although the fire is made for the purpose of heating the house, and a non-Jew places the victuals thereon before the fire is made, the God-fearing avoid it.

28. One who spills liquid on the soil where anything is apt to grow, is guilty of violating the law against “sowing,” because the liquid accelerates the growth. Therefore, one should be careful not to eat in a garden on the Sabbath, because it is impossible to be so careful as not to spill some liquid upon the soil; and, besides, in a garden there is a law forbidding the moving of articles.

29. It is forbidden to wipe anything with a sponge that has no handle.

30. It is forbidden to spit in a place where the wind will scatter the saliva.

31. A maiden is forbidden either to make braids or to take them apart on the Sabbath [violates the law against tying knots]. But she is allowed to fix her hair with her hands. The hair must not be combed with a brush made of bristle if it is very hard, because it is impossible not to pluck out some hair with it; but if it is not hard, the hair may be set with it, and especially so if it is made for that particular purpose.

32. One may wipe off dirt from a garment with a rag, but no water may be spilled on it, because it would be equivalent to washing. Therefore, if a child urinates on a garment, it is forbidden to spill water on it (but if he urinates on the ground or in a vessel made of wood or of leather, it is permissible to spill water on it). When one washes the hands, one should rub them briskly, one against the other to leave as little water on them as possible before using the towel (for when there is only moisture on them, the wiping does not constitute “washing”).

34. If water spills on the table, it is forbidden to wipe it with a cloth which one values, for since it absorbs much water, one might wring it out [which is a violation]. Neither should one use a cloth in drying glasses or other vessels having a narrow opening, for the liquid might be squeezed out of the cloth.

35. If one is caught in the rain and his clothes get wet, he may go home and remove the clothes, but he is not allowed to spread them out so that they may dry; even if one's clothes are only moist with perspiration, he is not allowed to spread them out, certainly not in front of a fire. Even when one has the wet clothes on, he is not allowed to stand in front of a fire where it is very hot. One is likewise forbidden to shake off water from a garment. A costly garment, of which one takes special care, must not even be handled when taken off, for fear that he might wring it.

36. If one walks and reaches a brook, one may jump over it even if it is wide; jumping is better than the effort of walking round about it. One is not permitted to cross it by wading, lest he will wring his clothes after crossing. One must not walk along the sloping bank of a stream on the Sabbath, for he might slip, fall into the water, wet his clothes and then wring them.

38. Wet mud on a garment may be scraped off with a fingernail or with a knife, but not when it is dry, for it is then equivalent to the act of “grinding.”

39. It is forbidden to shake off snow or dust from a black garment, but it is permissible to remove feathers from it with the hand. Some people refrain even from the latter.

40. It is allowed to remove mud from the feet or the shoes with something which may be handled on the Sabbath, or they may be wiped by rubbing them on a beam, but it is forbidden to wipe them on a wall or on the ground. In cases of emergency, as when there is excrement on the foot or on the shoe and there is nothing available which may be handled on the Sabbath, one may wipe it on a wall; and if there is no wall, he may wipe it on the ground. If there is water available, he may even wash the shoe with it, if the shoe is made of leather (because in the case of leather, the mere flushing of it does not constitute “washing,” unless he rubs one side against the other, in the manner of launderers). But one is not allowed to scrape off excrement from a leather shoe with a knife....

42. On the Sabbath, it is forbidden to paint anything even with a dye that is not permanent. Therefore, a woman is not allowed to use rouge. When our hands are colored by fruit juice, we must not touch any garment because we thus dye it. We are likewise forbidden to wipe a bleeding nose or wound with a cloth.

44. It is forbidden to tear or to twine even two threads or two loose hairs on the Sabbath [violates the law against weaving or tying knots].

45. It is the practice when we wind a thread or a cord around an object, that we make two knots, one on the top of the other [a double knot]. On the Sabbath, we are not allowed to make two knots, even on an object which we generally loosen on the same day. When putting a kerchief around the neck on the Sabbath, we must not make two knots on it, and even on Friday, we must not make two knots on it, as we will not be allowed to untie it on the Sabbath, as stated herein below. It is forbidden to hold the two ends of a thread or a cord together, and make one knot on both, for in this case, even one knot will hold it fast. It is permissible to take the two ends, make first one knot, and on the top of it make a loop, if it is a thing which is generally untied the same day. If not, it is forbidden even if in this instance we intend to untie it the same day. It is permissible to make two or more loops, one on top of the other, even if it is intended to hold for many days.

46. It is forbidden to untie any knot which may not be tied on the Sabbath. If a knot causes us pain, it may be loosened by a non-Jew.

48. Garments that are made with a string or a strap in them for fastening, such as trousers, shoes, or undershirts, if the garment is new, it is not permitted to insert the string in them on the Sabbath, for it is akin to perfecting a garment. If the garment is old, and the aperture is not narrow, so that there is no trouble inserting it, it is permissible.

49. Sometimes when a seam becomes loose and the parts of a garment become separated, the thread is pulled and the loose parts tighten temporarily. This act constitutes “sewing,” and may not be done on the Sabbath.

52. It is forbidden to catch any living thing on the Sabbath, even a flea; but if an insect stings a person, it may be removed and thrown off, but one is not allowed to kill it because it is forbidden to kill on the Sabbath anything that possesses life. It is, however, permissible to kill lice, since they are created only by perspiration (nevertheless, those found on clothes may not be killed, but should be thrown off; only those found in the head may be killed).

53. If we wish to close a chest or a vessel in which there are flies, we must let them fly out first, because by closing the chest on them we snare them. However, it is not necessary to examine the chest to see that no living thing is therein; we simply have to chase out those we see.

54. It is forbidden to draw blood on the Sabbath, even to suck the blood from the gums. It is likewise forbidden to put a plaster on a wound to draw out blood and pus. And it is certainly forbidden to squeeze blood or pus from a boil.

55. Shreds of skin which have become separated from the base of the fingernails should not be removed either by means of an instrument or by hand, or with the teeth. A nail, most of which has been torn off and causes pain, may be removed with the hand, but not with an instrument. But if less than half has become separated, it should not be removed even by hand.

57. If meat has not been salted for three days after the slaughter, and the third day occurs on the Sabbath, a non-Jew may rinse such meat on the Sabbath, so that it should not become forbidden food, but it may not be rinsed by a Jew.

58. It is forbidden to cover anything with a plaster, or wax, or tar. Therefore, it is forbidden to put wax or congealed oil into a hole in order to close it up, or to stick it onto something as a mark. It is, however, permissible to smear food, like butter, on bread.

59. It is forbidden to cut or break any object that is not food; but food, even for beasts, may be cut and broken. It is allowed to cut up straw with which to pick the teeth.

60. It is forbidden to make any use of a tree, whether it is green or dried up, even if we do not shake the tree thereby (as shaking the tree is in itself a violation, because it may not be moved on the Sabbath). We must not climb on it, nor suspend ourselves from it. It is also forbidden to place any article on it or remove anything from it, or to tie an animal to it. It is even forbidden to make use of the sides of the tree; hence, if a basket is suspended from the tree, it is forbidden to take anything out of the basket or to put anything in it, inasmuch as the basket is considered as the side of the tree.

61. Flowers or plants which are cultivated in a vessel, whether for their beauty or their fragrance, are forbidden to be plucked, just as it is forbidden to pluck them from a tree.

62. It is forbidden to write or to draw a picture, even with the finger in liquid spilled on the table, or on the rime [frost] of window panes, or anything similar to it, no matter how impermanent such writing is. It is even forbidden to make a mark upon any object with the fingernails.

63. Just as it is forbidden to write on the Sabbath, so is it forbidden to erase any writing. Nevertheless, it is permissible to break and to eat on the Sabbath tarts upon which letters or figures have been made; but if they have been made as a charm for children, one should avoid doing it.

64. Some authorities forbid the opening or the closing of books, when words are written on the edges of the leaves. Others permit it; and this is the prevailing practice. But since some authorities forbid it, it is best to avoid writing on the edges of pages.

72. It is forbidden to remove or to reset doors or windows on the Sabbath, even when they hang on iron hinges and are easily removed or reset; one who resets them is guilty of construction, and one who removes them is guilty of demolition.

73. It is forbidden to sweep the house, even if the floor is made of stone or of boards, but it may be done by a non-Jew. However, even a Jew is allowed to sweep if he is doing it in an entirely unusual manner, as when he sweeps it with goose feathers, or the like.

82. It is forbidden to carry a covering as a protection from the sun or from the rain, which is commonly known as an umbrella, because it is considered as making a tent.

87. On the Sabbath, it is forbidden to make a musical sound, either with an instrument or with the limbs of the body (except the mouth).

91. There are many divergent views regarding the folding of garments on the Sabbath, and it is best not to fold them.

Chapter 86

Bathing on the Sabbath

1. One is forbidden to wash his whole body, or even the greater part of the body, in warm water even if the water was warmed before the Sabbath. It is forbidden even if he washes the body a small part at a time. It is forbidden to enter a bathhouse for the purpose of perspiring there. It is, however, permissible to wash one's face and bathe one's feet with water made warm before the Sabbath.

2. It is permissible to wash the entire body with water which flows warm from its origin, such as the hot springs of Tiberias, if the water is on the ground and the place is not covered with a roof. However, if the water is in a receptacle or if the place is covered with a roof, it is forbidden.

3. It is permissible to immerse the whole body in cold water, but one must not thereafter stand in front of a hot oven to warm up, for that would make it like washing with warm water. Even if one has washed only the hands in cold water, one is not allowed to warm them by an oven while they are still wet, because it is equivalent to washing with water that has been warmed up [on the Sabbath].

4. A bather must be careful not to squeeze the water from his hair. He must likewise refrain from swimming, because swimming on the Sabbath and on festivals is forbidden. It is also forbidden to make anything float, such as chips of wood. One who bathes in a place from where it is forbidden to carry anything out on the Sabbath, must shake off all the water from his body and from his hair before leaving, so that he will carry no water out from one premise into another.

Chapter 90

Doing Things that are not Actual Work; Work Through a Non-Jew

7. On the Sabbath, one may say to a workman: “Do you think you will be able to see me this evening?” Although the workman understands that he wants to see him in the evening in order to hire him to do some work, [there is no violation because] only a direct proposal is forbidden. One, however, should not say, “Be ready for me this evening,” as that is like saying in plain words that one desires to hire him.